In the organization of winter travel is the most important question is the dog food. It depends on the number of yukola harvested udeheytsami, which in turn depends on the progress of fish this year. Nedolya fish makes udeheytsev kill some of their dogs and stop their incursions sobolevanie. 1909 was an average along the fish, and it gave me the opportunity to gather enough food yukola. It must be borne in mind that every dog ??eats more than a man, and therefore the most tremendous burden in our sleds was dog food. Therefore, a long journey, we, unfortunately, could not take a lot of dogs. Each sled drags man and help him to harness three or four dogs. The convoy of the expedition consisted of seven and twenty-eight sled dogs purchased from Samarga udeheytsev. December 29, we parted with Fanzoj Kiveta and started on a long journey.
Old maps sorokaverstnogo scale river Samarga called fugitive and shows a small mountain stream. In fact, it has about 200 kilometers in length and covers the white salmon river basins and Botchi. Samarga flows in the upper reaches in the longitudinal valley, in north-south direction, in the middle reaches of the mountain is cut transversely to the strike of the folds and turns first to the south-east and then to the east, what is the direction and keeps to its confluence with the sea. During the last big storm winds piled up drifts, but in other places, on the contrary, completely cleared the river of snow. Clean and clear the ice was 40 to 60 centimeters thick. In many places there were voids whitish, arranged one above the other. These were air bubbles rising from the bottom and primerzshie to the ice. Upper bubbles were small, the second a little more, the greatest average, then they decreased again, and the youngest were the last. In many places, the ice was mixed with pebbles and had the appearance of a conglomerate, in which the role played cement frozen water. Size of the stones in the ice were different and in some cases (only in pure ice) value almost in a horse's head. Under them a half meters deep, where water flowed quietly. Obviously, these boulders were raised refloated with ice rifts and sailed with them for as long as the river does not.
On the first day we got to the area Putugu, and the next - to the mouth of the River Buoy (which means beast).
From here to the familiar hills Delahchi Samarga flows from north-west to south-east. On the right side close to the river are suitable Chzhangda mountain walks, consisting of greenstone porfirita Schlieren with large red-brown color, which are part of the thickness of the basic rocks of the horizontal wedges, the vertical dome masses. On the contrary, the left side of the river, is a vast lowland area, covered with a flood-plain, coniferous and deciduous forest, known as Chzhangda Mukuduoni. It cut through the influx Uyga and is the place to be very convenient for settlement.
On the second day of the new year, our little party reached the first large influx Samarga - River Kukcha. This river through the pass is the way De River Surpak (Sukpai), inflow of Horus. Area near Kukcha called Mukden. There, I did a day's rest and made astronomical observations.
Samarga river from the mouth of the river Kukcha Bui runs almost north-south direction. If you go away downstream, the left side will be the summands of metamorphosed sandstone hills Ualya Celine duct undec and terrain Ulen and C, followed by two rivers and Okchzha Chzhado. Samarga_ goes into "cheeks" Kabahta between the mountains, the slopes of which consist of high terraces covered with talus. At a closer look it turned out great pieces of basaltic lava. Outside metamorphosed rocks takes brown-red hue. The edges of the debris under the influence of the same atmospheric conditions somewhat rounded. Stones poorly kept in place and easy to crumble into the valley. Below the mountain Kabahta Samarga receives the influx Chzhoru to pass on the white salmon river, lower the terrain Saga Mukuduoni and two key Yai and Omuge. Near the mouth of the latter is serving a rock valley of the same name. Near rivers and Kukcha Samarga is high ring-shaped mountain Kyamo. It is very similar to the ancient collapsed volcano. Below the hill on the right side Kyamo Samarga is Luhunu area, and after Kabahta cheeks in the mountains to the river and the key Kurimi Bug note the rocks consisting of chert. Here the inscription "1885 DI" left geologist DL Ivanov. I felt obliged to renew it, as far as possible. After the Bug River in the fall Samarga two small key: Umugdy and Ulgen, followed by the area near the river Pukdotani Chzhaami, which flows into the River Buoy, which was mentioned above.
Geographer Samarga should visit the river in winter and see how it freezes. There he saw a very interesting phenomenon. In areas Kabahteana track is on the left bank, and so tempted him that formed a sort of overhanging eaves. Here the water is agitated, flung onto the ice and immediately frozen. Apparently, the channel of the river is compressed laterally and increases, increases and ice ledges on either side. In the end, the result is something like a corridor which comes with great swiftness water. Its level is located at the human eye. The reason is, perhaps, again anchor ice. We admired the beautiful spectacle and went.
If we make a conditional line of the river mouth Holonku (Cape Sosunova) through the middle reaches Samarga about Kukcha through upstream Anyuya Khungari and below, we find the perfect interface between two floras: Manchu and Okhotsk. One of them belongs to the other wedges, and conductors will Okhotsk flora ridges and conductors Manchu - valley. This explains the presence of coniferous forests (larch, spruce, fir) at the bottom and broad Samarga Manchu (cork, nuts, grapes, Dahurian birch and actinides) - near the river Kukcha.
In connection with the distribution of the vegetation is and distribution of animals. When it became known that about all of the above occur Kukcha representatives Manchurian flora could forward to say that there must be home to tigers, wild boar, red deer, which was confirmed in reality. Fauna downstream Samarga characterized mainly bear, moose, musk deer, fox, sable, wolverine.
On the day of our arrival at the river Kukcha udeheytsy hunters near our bivouac found fresh tracks of a large tiger. Fearing for their dogs, I told them to take the tent and all night to maintain a large fire. Despite this, just before dawn, when the fires were extinguished completely, dog alarmed. They grumbled, grinned and pressed close to the people. At sunrise it became clear that another tiger less, according to the left trail, came close to the camp, but, warned by barking dogs and the voices of the people hurried retreat.
Up to twelve kilometers Kukcha Samarga takes a second large influx Isimi by which you can get to the river Botchi. Between that river and the small key is Dzhyukda Singachzhalegeni hill, and then another key Wakee. The right edge of the valley Isimi at its junction with the river ends Samarga Kohtoa knoll.
3 km away from it, we found the greatest udeheyskoe Yaguyatauli camp. Even lower, but slightly above the river Kukcha. - Another village Pyafu. The inhabitants of the two lived in yurts of bark, and these udeheytsy preserved in its most pure physical type, and all the customs and manners of the forest people. On the right side Samarga between the nomad camps, we see two mountains - Yuka and Chuganga consisting of porphyry, then key ABA and two mountain Lendoo and Pyafu in outcrops are visible sandstone shale.
On this day, we did not go further. In the evening I wrote in my journal a lot of interesting things. From udeheytsev I learned that there are two higher camps, and Cournand Elatszavo, and then begins a desert area. One udeheytsev, Vanik Kamedichi a knife on a piece of birch bark drew me Samarga river with all its tributaries. I Compared the later it with his shooting, I was struck by the extent to which it has been drawn up correctly and how sustained throughout the same scale.
In these places the main point will be indicative Mountain Mile, which are visible from the river and Mines Nahtohu. From Mile River Samarga flows in the direction from north-west to south-south-east. Fifteen kilometers away is another high mountain Pio. In the outcrops on the river it stands andesite. Between these two hills Samarga valley widens considerably and is called the Kurnai. The right edge of the valley forms a hill and Tszaa Ghul, the terms of hloritizovannogo porfirita and calcareous sandstone. Lower valley again expands to form a vast expanse covered by forest, composed of broad-leaved trees, and known as Podolyago, Santol and Aktevuani. Where Samarga divided into two streams, the west is a small river empties Tszovuani, so that the terrain was called Elatszavo, which means Three Rivers. Near the mouth of her Samarga width of 100 meters. From sea to rise Elatszavo udeheytsy boat for ten days, and back down into the water for two and a half days. From this, the reader can clearly imagine what the speed of the river Samarga.
In the middle reaches of its common open hole in the ice, and in the forest, in areas protected from the wind - freezing ducts. In the cold days of them rising evaporation. About such thawed on pure ice can be seen dainty rosettes frost-like patterns on windows Sparktouched winter. If you delete frost hand, it appears that at this point of ice sticks grass or thin twig. As to whether they are the objects around which the condensed steam, or they serve as conduits of water on its surface? This question can be clarified only by special studies.
The closer we got to the Sikhote-Alin, the greater the snow. Dogs do not see the road in front of him and refused to go. They stopped and looked back. Zhang Bao and one of udeheytsev went ahead on skis tread the road dogs, as per night skier snow.
Tenth of January, our expedition reached the small river. In recent days, the arrow and. Cossacks were very tired, so I decided to do a day's rest.
As soon as we move away from the sea, the air temperature dropped lower and lower. Morning it dropped to -35 °, the day the thermometer showed -26 °, and in the evening again reached -32 ° C.
Taking advantage of a day's rest, the next day I decided to go on a tour. I volunteered to accompany Chang Bao. We wanted to get up early, but both overslept. Nine o'clock in the morning, after breakfast, we took the gun and went to a neighboring hill. Lifting it was not difficult, and forty-five minutes we were on top of it.
From here you can follow the river was good Samarga of where our bivouac to Mount Mile, which was mentioned above. On this site it flows from west-northwest to east-southeast between basalt hills, which, perhaps, are in connection with the ring-shaped knoll Kyamo. By nameless key downstream geographic names in the valley Samarga go in this order. On the left bank of Dyrovitogo rock (Kada Sangani) series of low hills, ending Hontoasa cliff behind which stretches a vast lowland area with a river Covenant, then the mountains again approach the river and for five kilometers form steep cliffs. Them up to the mountains Mile - another large lowland covered with burnt wood. Right Bank more mountainous. First comes a series of hills, valleys separated short forked, covered with coniferous mixed forest. Covenant begins below the river valley cutting through the lava flow. The western part of it is called Tilyani and eastern - Ongo. Then follows the river Fuhi, and below it - a key Tyuhe Dukdumogueni and rock, and finally, the area Yalahchi. Just against rock cliffs are Polyaligi Mountain Mile.
After admiring the view of the river valley Samarga, we descended into the valley of the Covenant, and went up to her. I began to look closely to the tracks, of which there were quite a few. Here is a typical trail hare. He moved with small jumps, gnaw the bark of willow, then something scared and quickly ran into the bushes. There were traces of a nearby wood grouse. First he walked with measured steps, then stopped (both tracks are nearby), and rose in the air. At first his wings he speckled snow fan-shaped stripes. Little further elk crossed the river and headed for the mountains. Along the way he also gnaw the bark of trees and biting the tips of small branches. Then he caught sable tracks wading with convicts on convicts. So we went four kilometers, but, despite the abundance of trails, animals themselves we have not met. I already had to turn back, when Zhang Bao stopped and said:
- Hai-Xia Zi (ie, bear).
I looked in that direction and, indeed, saw the old, bear trail zanastivshiisya average. Obviously, someone had disturbed in the den, which he got in the second half of October. These bears-rods always very angry, and meeting them is considered dangerous.
- Its no go away - said Zhang Bao. - Our soon it can catch up.
He was right in the winter will not bear a long walk in the snow and try to hide under the first available convicts.
We went on. Traces were zigzagging along the hills. The bear came to the big tree, look under the upturned roots, digging in the frozen scree and fallen trees scattered on the ground. At one point, the flood caused a lot of small branches, on top of their fallen leaves and skidded covered with snow. Bear got under the rubbish, but something he did not like. He lay there, apparently, only a few hours and went back to the river.
- Come on, - I said to the Chinese.
Zhang Bao-examined his gun and began to wade through the thicket, as little as possible to make noise. Ten minutes later he stopped, and without saying a word, held out his hand. Interesting sight appeared before our eyes.
Big old cedar on the ground. In the fall, he broke into several pieces. In the place where he grew up, there was a large tree stump, hollow inside and one-third open from our side. In the middle of it sat a bear. He scattered around all the snow and paws grabbed a pile of frozen moss, and which themselves overlaid the front and sides to the waist. Large cakes moss accidentally or deliberately lying on his shoulders and head. Moss on top was decorated with more hood of snow. The beast sat motionless and apparently asleep. You would have thought that he was dead, if not steam, leaving of the nostrils.
We had to retreat or quietly, or shoot. Zhang Bao first raised the gun. Two shots rang out almost simultaneously. Snow fell from the hood of a bear's head, he shuddered, lurched forward and was immediately stuck his face in the snow. Our shots were fatal.
Zhang Bao stayed at the place of hunting, to remove the bear's skin while it is still not stiff. On the way back I met udeheytsa Vanik Kamedichi and told him what had happened.
- Gee bytes (evil, sin) - he replied and added that they had such a sleepy animal beaten. Every hunter knows that every beast first have to wake up screaming or throw a stone at him and shoot only when it will rise from its maturation. It is a law that can not be broken. The man does not keep it, sooner or later cost him his life.
On the same day killed animal was transported to the camp. We took a piece of meat with him, most gave udeheytsam and skin were sent to the mouth of the river Samarga for delivery in the spring by boat to the city of Vladivostok.
Two days later we got to the key Solola, in which we had to climb in the Sikhote-Alin. There was an empty booth, built by Gold each year after the new year come here with Cupid and sobolyuyut on land owned Samarga udeheytsam. Using their numbers, they do not pay attention to the protests of the latter.
Accompanied us udeheytsy located in the shed, and we - in his tent. I wanted to determine the geographical coordinates mouth key Solola, but as the sky was not very clear, I decided to make another trip down the river Samarga. Its origins are in the high mountain site, where rivers originate Anyui, Mines, and Chorus Samarga flowing in different directions from the Sikhote-Alin. Thus, with Samarga can go to the Ussuri and Amur rivers and back to the sea.
In the upper Samarga flows along the Sikhote-Alin in the direction from north-east to south-south-west. From key Solola it starts to deviate to the south, then to the south-east. The river valley near the sea Samarga narrow, but it is significantly higher Kukcha expanding. Small scattered hills, smooth contours, numerous small streams and their valleys total waterlogged show permanent erosion and the ancient structure of the Sikhote-Alin, which essentially represents the remains were once majestic mountains.