In 1908, the Amur branch of the Russian Geographical Society sent an expedition to survey part of the Far East, confined within the boundaries: the lower Amur River - in the west, the Strait of Nevel (Tatar) - to the east, and the river one Samarga - in the south. The expedition - natural-historical, duration - 19 months (from June 24 1908 to January 20, 1910). The composition of the expeditionary force composed of the following persons: the head of the expedition, the author of this book, Arsenyev, and staff: assistant business and organizational part of TA Nikolaev, known florist NA Desulavi, naturalist and geologist C. F. Gusev and a great connoisseur of the hunting case, the employee magazine "Our hunting" IA Dzyul.
In addition, the expedition were assigned seven shooters - from 23rd East Siberian Rifle Regiment: Peter Vikhrov Stanislav Glegola, Michael Marunich Turtygin and Ivan, the 24th East Siberian Rifle Regiment Michael Kurashev, Ilya and Pavel Rozhkov Nozdrin and the Ussuri Cossack Cossack Division: Gregory Dimov and Ivan Krylov.
In early June, T. Nikolaev was ordered to sail to the Imperial (now Soviet) harbor and arrange three nutritious base: 1) at the river mouth Samarga, 2) the river Botchi and 3) at Andreeva Bay. On arrival at the Imperial Harbor he should see Oroch elders and find out what the river basin after the expedition will pass through the Sikhote-Alin mountain range, and then along the river to go to the food stocks to meet her. With TA Nikolayev went all the arrows, and the author went: NA Desulavi, SF Gusev, IA Dzyul, Zhang Bao and both Cossack Ivan Krylov and Gregory Dimov.
All members of the expedition were dressed uniformly. Summer clothing consisted of khaki shirts, the same pants, belts, caps, and three changes of clothes. To protect against parasites was harvested one pair tar underwear that is worn at a time when it was necessary. Shoes were sewn in Khabarovsk on Form Oroch untov. The author is also expected to purchase them from the local native population. In addition, all had to protect against mosquitoes: a grid on the head, sleeves and cotton gloves.
Winter clothing consisted of fur hats with ear coats, warm underwear, woolen trousers, woolen gloves and a native of the same shoes, but only bigger. For the legs, each member of the expedition had on a pair of cloth windings. They are well protected from the leg injuries and much more comfortable leather uppers.
Summer tents, as well as during travel period 1906-1907, were absent. In return, they were taken komarniki. Winter travelers were better equipped. First of all, there was a big tent cloth, which could easily accommodate up to twenty people. He had the appearance of a hexagonal prism, a hexagonal pyramid covered, and held on the same nail, staged in the middle. By its corners are firmly sewn rings with a long rope with which the tent and stretched in all directions. Light into the interior of it came through two small windows with thick lenses. The decor consisted of tents winter collection boxes, folding table with a collapsible board and scraps of wood trunks, replacing chairs. The cast-iron stove with a rotating vane trumpet give more heat than necessary. It was brewed tea and boiled water for washing. Lunch and dinner are cooked outside. Sex in the tent was covered with fir branches and dry grass. All slept together, tightly packed together and covered up the top blankets and coats.
The commander and his men were armed with rifles Mauser and Winchester rifles and shot Sauer and Remington with an adequate supply of powder and shot. Arrows had trilinear rifles without bayonets, bandoliers and three hundred rounds per man.
Bivy gear consisted of saws, two shovels, a few axes, kettles with bows of different sizes, entering each other, frying pan, ladle, enamel cups for food, cups, etc.
Indispensable feature of any long expedition is set carpentry and locksmith tools. Not forgotten was also ambulance box with sufficient dressing. Special attention was paid to the scientific expedition.
All the success of the enterprise is obliged by the selfless service of their junior staff. Despite the fact that their peers have been transferred to the reserve army, despite ample opportunity to get out of the Imperial Harbor to Vladivostok on the boat, they are realizing that the care of even one person from the squad would be very sensitive, voluntarily stayed until the end of the expedition. Hardly ever the arrows and the Cossacks had to endure great hardships endured than these modest workers. Despite the constant fatigue and physical suffering from cold and hunger, which can not be put into words, they bravely fought with nature and did not complain about his fate. Many of them died in the imperialist war. What happened to the others - I do not know.
Looking at a map of the Far Eastern region, we notice that some of the ways his survey were particularly izlyubleny. Some scientists go after the other in a rut. Most of matching routes, we see: 1) in the area of ??the river near the town and Suifen Nikolsk Ussuri *, 2) on the eastern shore of Lake Hanka, Sungache River and the Ussuri River, and 3) the rivers Daubihe, Ulahe, Fujinami and through the Sikhote- Alin to the Sea, 4) in the lower reaches of the rivers bikini, Iman and Baku. Less emphasis on research carried out in the coastal area north of Olga Bay in the central mountainous area of ??the Sikhote-Alin.
* Now - Voroshilov.
The very first is a researcher of the lower Amur Cossack sergeant Poyarkov Basil, who in 1643 with 132 Cossacks, being sent Yakut commander Peter Golovin, held in Amur region in a way that no one after him repeated. Poyarkov rose from Yakutsk Aldan rivers, Uchur and Gonam and crossed the ridge The police came down the rivers and Bryante See the Amur, and on it floated to the mouth and went to the Sea of ??Okhotsk. In 1646 Poyarkov safely returned to Yakutsk after four years traveling, coupled with the great hardships, losing half his men, some in battles with Daur, partly from hunger and disease *.
* P. witty. Historical review. Siberia, 1886, see also N. Bogolyubsky. Sketch of the Amur Region, 1876
Behind him in 1647 Cossack Semyon Schelkovnikov down the Amur River, and went into the estuary and headed north to the mouth of the Hunt.
After about a hundred and fifty years after the Amur Poyarkova there are two Japanese travelers: Mogami Toknay in 1785 and Mamiya Rienzo in 1808.
Vasiliev exiled three times sailed to the mouth of the Amur River (1815-1826 gg.), But every time the Manchus kept him on the way back and were given our government. During the interrogation, he gave detailed information about the climate, nature and the richness of interior edges, then tested Ladyzhenskaya in 1832.
In 1845, a French missionary de la Bryuner on behalf of the Chinese emperor Kangxi took a trip to the Amur River. July 16, he went out of town to the east Sansina the narrow path and, after 120 miles, 19 September reached the Amur River, where he wintered in Goldsk village tuyeres *. April 5, 1846, he sailed to the mouth of the Amur River, and near the village Gutong was brutally murdered by the natives. They pulled out of his eyes, knocked out teeth and left the body on the shore, where it lay for as long as the waves are not Cupid carried him into the sea. **
* At the foot of the ridge Khekhtsir, as discussed below.
** A. Michie. Travel east Siberia, 1868
Another missionary Reno sent vicar Veroli Manchuria to investigate the fate of de la Bryunera in 1850 down the Amur River near the village Hu-Dun, situated near the lake Kesey. Expedition. Renault has not given any results, except the sad stories of the death of de la Bryunera, 1849 is a landmark in the Far East. GI Nevel when examining the Amur estuary found that Sakhalin is an island, not a peninsula, as previously thought.
GI Nevel to learn that the children of the Celestial Empire rule does not extend as far to the east, this has exceeded his instructions, entered the Amur River, Nicholas founded the post, addressed later in the town of Nikolaevsk, and sailed down the river about a hundred kilometers from the lake Kesey . August 1, 1850, he raised the Russian flag and saluted him from the gun *.
* "The exploits of Russian sailors in the Far East of Russia in 1849-1852 years." and "Sea Collection", 1878, № № 3 and 4.
Lieutenant I. Bosnjak in 1852 also reached the lake, and from there suhoputem Kesey held in Bay de Castries. He had the honor of opening the Gulf of Hadi, he christened the Imperial harbor *.
* I. Bosnjak. Expedition to the Amur region. "Sea Collection", 1858, № 12. Now renamed the Imperial Harbor in Sovetskaya Gavan.
With the opening of navigation in 1854, Governor-General of Eastern Siberia NN Ants with a detachment of the Transbaikal Cossacks and parts of the 13th and 14th battalions of the line came down on barges and rafts on the river Amur from Ust-arrow to the guard post Mariinsky, which he founded at the entrance to Lake Kesey *.
* Sverbeev. Description of navigation on the river Amur. (Expedition governor general of Eastern Siberia in 1854). "Notes of the Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society," 1857, Vol. 3.
In August of that year from the mouth of the Amur River to Ust-arrow on the guard ship "Hope" came Admiral Putjatin Poset with him, then Minister of Communications. The latter was a world cruise on board the frigate "Diana", after the crash that brought the crew to the city of Petropavlovsk-Kamchatka, and from there travel across the Amur went to Irkutsk and then to St. Petersburg *.
* RK Bogdanov. Amur Cossack recollection of the past. "Notes Amur Division of the Russian Geographical Society." 1900, Volume V, no. III. See also: P.V.Shumher. On the history of the acquisition of the Amur. (Our relations with China, 1848-1860 gg.), "Russian Archives", 1878, № 11, pp. 257-343.
Researcher follows in chronological order will Academician L. Schrenk, who in 1854 - 1856 years of traveling along the Amur to its mouth and along the Ussuri River to Nor. His ethnographic studies relate mainly Golds, and olchey Gilyaks *.
* Shrenk. On the non-Russians Amur region. Ed. Academy of Sciences, 1883, and the "Bulletin of the Russian Geographical Society," 1857, Vol. 19.
In the spring of 1856 by way of the Amur from Ust-arrow to the position of the guard Nicholas made an official of the Department of principalities G. Permykin *.
* G. Permykin. Track log navigation on the Amur. "Notes of the Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society," 1857, Vol. 2.
In 1856, the 13th Battalion line boat was sent from the post back to the Mariinsky Transbaikal region. Harsh winter soldier found in the campaign. Barge on the misfortune of bread, sent to meet them, stranded somewhere in the upper reaches of the Amur. This unprecedented campaign badly dressed and hungry soldiers whom little is known. The whole way the 13th Battalion of the linear co-time freeze-up was littered with corpses. People are fed dead meat, but it did not save them from destruction. Poorly dressed and almost bare, they freeze on halts, unable to rise to support the fire dying fire.
As soon as the Russian government have negotiated with China in 1857, the Earl of Ants-Amur sent the Ussuri region Usoltseva surveyor, who sailed on the rivers Ussuri and Sungache to Lake Hanka. Then he went up the river Lof, but did not reach its source and from about half way turned to the south-west, and went out on the river Suifun and down on it to the Amur Bay, so named because the mouth Suifen then taken to be the mouth of the Amur . Usoltsev explained this error *.
* Usoltsev. Zahankaysky edge. "Bulletin of the Russian Geographical Society," 1857, Vol. 22. Also, "Sea Collection", 1864, city, № 6.
Mining Engineer N. Anosov in the same 1857 sailed along the Amur River to its mouth, and the next, in 1858 went to the Ussuri River to Iman and the latter river to the area Cartoon. Then he went down the river Sungache and along the eastern and southern shores of the lake to the river Hank Mo. The last trip on the river made Anosov Daubihe almost to its source *.
* Report on the activities of Amur Priiskovaya party in the Maritime region in 1857-1858 gg. "Irkutsk regional news", 1860, № № 7, 8, 12, 14, 16, 17.
Honor to make the first crossing through the Sikhote-Alin belongs MI Venyukov. In 1857, by order of the graph. Muravyov-Amur, he went on the Ussuri River, then along its tributary river Ulahe and Fujinami, then crossed the ridge of the Sikhote-Alin and went to the river Tadushu.
Venyukov wanted to go to the Gulf of Vladimir, but gathered in a large number of armed Chinese blocked his way and demanded that he returned. Then Venyukov on the beach, at the mouth of the river Tadushu, erected a wooden cross on which carved the inscription: "I was here in 1858, M. Venyukov." Eighteenth-June, he turned back, and twenty-two days on the same road back on Ussuri *.
* M. Venyukov. Review of the Ussuri River and the lands lying to the east of it to the sea. "Bulletin of the Russian Geographical Society," 1859, Part 23, № 4.
1859 was especially rich in research. One expedition follows the other. It was a period of acquaintance with the right tributaries Ussuri and lands to the south to the borders of Korea. Astronomer Gamow produces a number of surveying the Amur and Ussuri. He defined the extreme geographical coordinates Ulahe River (between the mouths of Fujinami and Noto), and then he went down the river to Lake Hanka Sungache and returned the same way. One of the capes in the Gulf Poset named after him *.
* From the travel notes astronomer captain Gamow in 1859 determined the area of ??the Amur and Ussuri rivers. "Notes of the Russian Geographical Society," 1862, Vol. 1 and 2.
Also in 1859 Ussuri region visited Academician KI Maksimovic. He rose through the valley of the Ussuri River, then along the river to the mouth Ulahe Fujinami, walked through the valley of the latter to the sources, crossed the dividing ridge of the Sikhote-Alin and down the river Wai-Food-Zina (Avvakumovka) to Olga Bay. The result of his research was extensive botanical composition, for which he won the PN Demidov. How valuable work KI Maksimovic, say no. This is known to anyone who has the slightest acquaintance with the literature of the local flora. He first found that the flora of the Ussuri region is Manchurian flora. Many plants named in honor of the explorer *.
* C. Maksimovic. Essay upper Ussuri and the southeast coast of the Manchu. "Notes of the Russian Geographical Society", 1861, № 3.
Ministry of State for forest research in the Ussuri region seconded corps captain Budischeva foresters and surveyors Korzun, Lubensky and Petrovich. Expedition Budischeva worked since 1867. These workers have acquainted us with the geography of the southern part of the Sikhote-Alin. The coastal area to the east of the watershed ridge they named Zaussuriyskim edge *. Sam looked Budishche Valley Ussuri River Daubihe and Lof, Lake Hanka, then down along the border to the river Suifen described the woods in the vicinity of villages Barabash, Nikolsky Novokievskaya on the peninsula Muravyov-Amur, was Ulahe, Fujinami in the Sikhote-Alin by Wai-Fujinami (now Avvakumovka) down to the sea. Surveyor Korzun up more than half by Iman and Waku and along the river to the top of bikini Byagamu its tributary, but get to the Sikhote-Alin failed. Lack of food forced him to return to the Ussuri. Third satellite Budischeva, Petrovich, surveyed the swampy lowlands and the forest on the right bank of the mouth of the Amur River Anyuya (Dondon) to Lake Kesey. Then we learn about his route to the Gulf of De Castries and then along the beach to the river Hoey, from P. Tumnin entered the river and walked along it to the mouth. Finally, Lubensky described forests along the river Amur from Khabarovsk to post Nicholas.
* Collection of the most important official documents on management of Eastern Siberia, Volume V. Coastal forest region, 1898
Simultaneously Budischevym Ussuri region visited the famous naturalist R. Maack. Together with ethnography Brylkin in early June 1869, he came to the mouth of the Ussuri and climb up to the river Sungachi. For this last he sailed to Lake Hanka, and passed it on the east, south and west sides. After an unsuccessful attempt to climb further up the river Ussuri Maak returned to the Amur. Studies of this amazing scientist subtlety of observation and a huge amount of material collected. Many species of insects and plants named after him *.
* Journey to the Valley of the Ussuri River, perfect for funds SF Solovyov. "Notes of the Siberian Department of the Russian Geographical Society", 1861, Volume 1.
Third French missionary Zherbilon went to survey the Amur in 1861. Near the mouth of the Songhua River, he met Russian and gladly accepted their offer to get them to the post of Nicholas. In the same year he returned Zherbilon *.
* A. Michie. Travel east Siberia, 1868
Following Maack in 1860 for three years the survey region occupies a prominent geologist and paleontologist F. Schmidt.