At noon on June 23, 1908 our small group moved to the steamer. It is easy and gratifying was the soul. All urban malaise reset begane to office over. Tomorrow, in a way. In the twilight of my companions went to the city for the last time to visit my friends, and I'm with friends who came to see me, stayed on the boat. We sat on the deck and began to enjoy the evening sunset, the glow of which is reflected in the vast water surface at the confluence of Amur Ussuri.
It was a quiet summer evening. Amber sun had just set behind the horizon and the dying rays of his gilded edges of the clouds in the sky. It reflected radiance in the air, in water and in the windows of some distant village, promising good weather for tomorrow.
Against the left bank of the Amur Khabarovsk low. Countless channels, blind sleeves and lakes create a labyrinth from which escape without an experienced escort difficult. Once all the space where the Amur flows into the east-west direction, from the village of St. Nicholas Ekaterinoslav to Lake Bolon-Ojala for about 500 and a width of 150 km, is a huge basin filled with water. Height at the confluence of the Ussuri River with Cupid are ancient coast of this vast body of water.
Khabarovsk was founded by Count Muravyov-Amur 31 May 1858 on the site of a small village Goldsk * Storm. Hence crooked Chinese name "Will", who kept in Manchuria until now. First place here 13th Battalion line, which is located as a military post. In 1880, here were translated from Nikolaevsk all administrative agencies, and village Khabarovka renamed the city of Khabarovsk.
* Gold - formerly the Nanai people.
Then it was a dull and unsettled settlement in the taiga, the remains of which were visible for a long time in the city center. The only communication was by Cupid. In autumn and spring, during the freeze-up and at the opening of the river Khabarovsk is cut off from other cities for a few months. This isolation is called "post standing".
On the deck of the ship was quiet and empty. Only by the noise of the city came vague, which is usually not heard in the afternoon.
You would think that with the onset of darkness, the air is zvukopronitsaemee. To the west is slowly dying dawn, on the other hand was approaching warm June night. Over a vast body of water is vital Amur easy twilight: clouds on the horizon faded, and the sky seemed the first flickering stars.
At this time, the noise of oars caught my attention. Because of the ship stern emerged a small boat with two rowers. Young Gold worked the oars, and the old man sat in the stern and directed his utluyu boat to the mouth of the Ussuri. He said something to his young companion, and reached out to the south, twice repeated word "Khekhtsir." I instinctively shifted his gaze to the majestic mountain range, stretching latitudinally from the lake and Paul to the Ussuri River and is known that just mentioned an old Gold. Khekhtsir has a maximum height of 860 meters. The railway crosses it at the lowest point in 34 kilometers from Khabarovsk. In the historical literature, this is called a ridge Hohtsskim also Khekhtsir *, and in Chinese geography Shui-tao, Teagan has a chapter on the Ussuri River, translated by Academician Vasiliev, which aforesaid mountain named Huhgir (Hurchin). **
* A. Michie. Journey to the East Siberia, 1868, page 335.
M. ** e u s k o v. Review of the Ussuri River and the lands to the east of it to the sea. "Bulletin of the Russian Geographical Society," 1859, Part 25.
On the western slope of the ridge Khekhtsir by the river Ussuri Cossack village located Kazakevichevo, and before there was a small village hodzenskaya tuyere (Turm), consisting of four huts *.
* P a r h e a lis h. A trip through the winter up the Amur in 1856-1857 gg. (Studies and Materials). "Bulletin of the Russian Geographical Society," 1858, Part 21, page 168.
In 1859, R. Maak found here is Russian. From Goldsk village was no. trace, but the natives of it preserved memories.
Once upon a time lived in a lonely fanze Gold Heekchir Faeiguni. He was a good hunter and always had ample supply yukola for their dogs. Heekchir Sansine was once in the Songhua River and brought back a white cock. Then he began to tire of his loneliness, lost sleep and became ill there. One night Heekchir Faenguni went outside and sat on the porch of his house. Suddenly he heard the words:
- The owner, shut the windows, before the light will be cloudy.
Heekchir turned around and saw that it was a cock told him in a human voice. Then he went to the river, but then heard a whisper over his head. This is a saying among the trees. Old oak leaves rustled and told the young ash about what happened to him to be a witness for two hundred years. Heekchir scared. He returned to his hut, lay on the kang, but, as has just started to doze off again, he heard a rustling and voices. It was stated by the stones of which was built hearth. They were going to crack if they are just so hot. Then Heekchir realized he was called to be a shaman. He went to the river Nord, and there Manchu Shaman instilled in him the spirit Tyenku. Heekchir soon became famous - he healed diseases, found missing and assigned the souls of the dead in the "other world." His fame went throughout the valley Ussuri, Amur and Songhua River.
Soon near his hut there were other houses. Thus was formed the village lance. Then came the Russian and pushed hodzenov. Past had to leave their homes and away from the troubled "Lotz" up the Ussuri River. Village tuyeres disappeared, but the name has become a Heekchir Khekhtsir. Cossacks later this name was called not only the place where used to be hodzenskaya village, but the entire mountain range.
This legend was influenced south. How horrible it is to the Amur River to Gold of Manchuria?
During the conversation the time passed unnoticed. I spent my friends on the beach and returned to the steamer. It was late. Last sunset glow faded entirely, and the dark night came down. Somewhere down the melancholy heard bursts of waves, smelled damp and machine oil. I went to his cabin, and soon fell into a deep sleep.
The next day early in the morning we left Khabarovsk.
Since departing from the pier all on board the ship began to live life. With us went very diverse audience: the officials who play whist, "the small" traders who speak about their turnover, and peasants returning from the city with shopping. Who read, who sat there and stared into the distance, and who is just huddled in the cabin and went to sleep to the rhythm of the machine like a log. In third grade, very crowded - there are passengers right up on the bunk and get up to hold down a job, accomplished with such efforts at landing.
Farther and farther behind the remains of Khabarovsk. A broad band stretches Cupid, and it seems he is a big lake and did not look like a river.
On the origin of the name of the Amur, there are various indications. It is produced from the word "Amor", which in Tunguska means "Hello World", from the little river "Emur" flowing from the right side about Albazina *, and from Gilyak words "Gamura", "Yamur" which means "Big Water ". Miller calls the historian Mamoura river that is home to weave (NATK). Manchus called Cupid "Sahalyan ula" (river of black water), and the Chinese - "Huntun-tszyn", after connecting to the Songhua River ** - also "Gelong-kiang" (Black Dragon River) and Hei-shui, which means "Black Water "*** and in Yakut" Kara Tugan "(Black River). Modern native people call it Dai Mangu and olchey - mangunami.
* And as for p and n. Statistical description of the Chinese Empire.
** VP Vasiliev. Description of Manchuria. "Notes of the Russian Geographical Society", 1857, page 91.
And as to the *** and n f. Statistical description of the Chinese Empire, Part 2, 1842
The general direction of flow of the lower Amur northeast. On the left side of the river flow in a Tunguska, Dargie, Guy and Galia, and on the right - the flow out of the lake and Paul. Last length of about 20 and a width of about 8 kilometers. In the past, it was much larger and extends to the south and south-west to the foothills Khekhtsir. Sita was a small river, and defense fell into the lake itself. Hill, where today is located the village Volkonsky, is an ancient shore of a large lake and marshes to the west indicate places that recently freed from water. Drenazhirovaniya process is not yet complete. The current lake Petropavlovskoe fast shallow, and near the time when it also turns into a swamp. Wide valley filled with sediments of the Amur tributaries - silt and sand, the usual flood of satellites. In areas of landslides in podmyta coast seen as they are in sequential order. At the bottom is sand and pebble layer above it nizhneallyuvialnaya clay, and higher layers of sand, clay, and then again over her soil humus (humus) layer, covered with high reed grass and reeds, long roots in white and purple Case penetrate the entire thickness of sediment. Around the ducts of the lake and Paul are a lot of sand and silt islands. Some of them barely protruding from the water, others have the form of flat burners, covered with grass and willow bushes. Sands moved by water in summer and winter - the wind. Sometimes in the winter you can see snow on top of a layer of sand, which is carried at the opening of the river with ice over long distances.
By evening, our ship came to the village of Vyatka *, located on the right bank of the Amur Mountainous. Here for a few hours was to make a stop for loading firewood. I immediately went ashore to explore the village. It had a kind of dismal. First of all I was struck by the countless piles of firewood, followed up on the bank could see houses and outbuildings made thoroughly and well, even fences were made of logs. Everything pointed to the disadvantages of the population, and yet in the eyes beat negligence, the courts of the collapse, a pile of horse manure and impassable mud. Along the village is one street. Two skinny bay horses lazily trudged along the road, they often stopped, clapped his lips, picking up grass and lifted dust. Behind them was an old man. He cursed the horses, shouting at them and waving his arms. Amur residents do not have carts and drive along the Amur River by boat in summer and in winter the ice on a sled. That is why in every household had two or three pairs of the sled. On the way back I saw the same farmer. He was sitting on a bench at the gate of a house, and talking to someone across the street. Reluctantly, he replied to my greeting and asked me whether I'll be a new teacher. My negative response, apparently, to reassure him. He moved to the bench and told me to sit down. From him I learned that the peasants have moved here from Vyatka province about half a century ago. They live with wealth and engaged in carting and winter firewood on the ships. Farming is not held in high esteem because they do not have anywhere near the good land, and because there are other, more lucrative earnings. And, in fact! A peck of sturgeon sold for 40 rubles, pounds and black caviar - to 320. If the move was a good chum, the average family of four adults souls could catch as many fish, which sold it in salted form, minus any costs for salt, barrels, freight, etc., it is not only fully sufficient in to the new catch but even a significant amount of money put aside for a rainy day.
* In 1926, in the village of Vyatka was 61 house, and lived in the village of 278 people of both sexes.
After talking a bit with the Vyatka veteran, I went to the bank. Steamer seemed saturated with electricity. Dazzling rays of his breaking out of all doors, hatches and windows and reflected in the black water. The gangplank went up and down the Koreans, porters firewood. I went was to his cabin with the intention to sleep, but a lot of noise on the deck made me to get dressed and go back upstairs.
It was past one o'clock. Floated across the sky full moon, silver its tremulous light of the broad reach of the Amur River. Ahead loomed the contours of a cape. Village
Vyatskoe waste to rest here and there in the houses still glowing lights ...
And in those hours of the night and came out of the water rose in the air countless ephemeris. In common are called "ephemera." Their larvae live in water and are carnivorous lifestyle. But then suddenly, all at once, they are rising to the surface and turn into a graceful winged creatures blednogolubogo colors with transparent wings and three tail bristles. Mayflies were so many, that if not for the warm summer night or early in the fragrant scent of mown grass somewhere dry, they can be mistaken for snow. There were thousands of thousands, millions. They literally filled the air, beat in the lighted windows of cabins, covered deck and swimming in the water. Ephemerides hurry to live. Their age is short, only 24 hours. From the dark depths of the waters they went on the air in order to produce their own kind and die.
I could not for a long time to be on deck. Insects literally swarmed me. They slapped in the face, crept into the sleeves, stuffed into your hair, climbed into his ears. I tried to dismiss them, and this proved to be quite an exercise in futility. The cabin was hot and stuffy, but it was impossible to open the windows due to the same lovely ephemeris. For a long time I turned from side to side, and just before dawn a little forgotten dream.
The next day I woke up, the ship was already on the way. Between the lake and the village of Qatar Vyatka Cupid while flows into the east-west direction, but then again turns to the north-east. Here the right bank consists of a series of flat uplands cut by deep ravines. It is composed of basaltic lava and ancient rocks. Yelabuga hill near the village away from the Amur River into the country and re-appear after Gasinskoy channels flowing from the lake of the same name.
According to the testimony Poyarkov, from the mouth of the Amur River Ussuri down for four days diving dyucherny lived, and further NATK *. Such self-natives in these locations, we now can not find anywhere else. Later writers speak of hodzenah and Golden. The largest Goldsk village on the right bank of the Amur from Khabarovsk to the village of Trinity in the following order: bonnets, Khovandi, Sakach-Alian, Lyumomi, Houholyu, Fly, Stop the, Dada, Dyerga, Naikhin, Dzhagri.
* H a d a r o v. Materials military statistical review of the Amur region. "Proceedings of Asia", 1883, vol. XXXI, page 23.
About Sakach-Alyan on the bank of the Amur is unwritten stones flooded during high water. On one stone sketched a human face. One can clearly distinguish the eyes, nose, eyebrows, mouth and cheeks. On the other stone - two human face: eyes, nose, mouth, and even made of concentric circles, and on the forehead several wavy lines, making the resulting expression of surprise, as if with raised eyebrows. Next profile of a fantastic animal with a long tail and seven feet. It is depicted with four concentric circles, of which the largest rear, then two small and in place of the head - a circle of medium size. Line, embracing community, part of the broken line of the curve represents the contour of the animal. At the last stone is quite correct image profile deer. Croup animal also painted with concentric circles. On the sides of the ribs are visible in the form of curves, and on the neck and back closer to shoulder some strange curls.
At about ten in the morning the ship came to the village of Trinity, also located on the right bank of the Amur. It differed from Vyatka except size. General color of old resident. In ancient times there was a settlement Goldsk jolt.
Despite the fact that the ships go by the Amur quite often, for the Amur farmers is always an event. Hearing the whistle, the entire population throws home and rushes to the bank to accept food brought from Khabarovsk, to see if anyone does not come from friends, or even just look at the audience. So it was at this time. The crowd on the beach I learned Kosyakova, who came from the village of Naikhin Goldsk on two boats to meet us and for the last time to make some purchases. Having dealt with the cases we collected our luggage and went to the boats. Near them on the coastal shingle sat five Golds. All were of average height and well built. They have oval face, slightly protruding cheekbones, small nose, and dark brown eyes. Their long black hair was braided by the Manchu model. Suit our new acquaintances consisted of relatively short white shirt and one or two-colored knee-length gowns, the floors of which are plowed one another and fastened on the side of the small metal buttons, similar to the bells.
Sleeves around hands were tied armlets. Golds on the legs wore short pants, made of blue so that, knee, tied to the belt strap, and a soft shoe in the form of thick olochey suede.
None of the peoples of the Amur does not like to decorate themselves so as Golds. All of their clothing from head to toe ornamented with beautiful stripes.