1. Faith in Allah (i.e., belief in God). God in Islam is one, ïðåâîñõîäÿù, out of time, gracious and merciful.
2. Faith in the Holy books. With each of the messengers of God sent to the people of the Book of revelations. The Torah through Moses, and the gospel through Jesus, the Quran through Muhammad.
3. Belief in the angels, the devil and the Jinn. The angels were created from light, serve as guides and helpers of God. Jinnah, created from the fire, inhabited the land before the person can be both good and evil. The devil (Shaitan, he), the fallen angel, who led hostile forces people.
4. Belief in the prophets. Before the coming of Muhammad was 124 thousand prophets. The Koran says 26 prophecies. Muhammad is the last messenger, the seal of the prophets.
5. Belief in heaven and hell.
6. Belief in predestination (al-frame). Allah knows everything, everything has its own meaning and is an expression of his will.
7. Faith in life after death (Ahira) and in the immortality of the soul (Ruh).
The Islamic symbol of faith is: «there is No God but Allah, and Mohammed is his Prophet».
Islam is based on five commandments:
1. Evidence - the «shahada». The essence of Islam is submission to God and the recognition that Muhammad is his messenger.
2. Prayer is the «salad». Expresses reverence for God and gratitude to him. Prayer is held five times a day - at dawn, at noon, afternoon, sunset and evening.
3. Alms - «zakat». A kind of tax in favour of the needy Muslims. Once a year a Muslim to pay 2.5% of their capital as alms to the needy.
4. The post - «ñàóì». Muslims fast during the entire month of Ramadan.
5. The pilgrimage, the Hajj. At least once in the life of a Muslim should go on a pilgrimage to Mecca and the Kaaba.
In Islam there are no sacraments, characteristic of Christianity. To become a Muslim, it's enough to say in the presence of respected people of the Islamic symbol of faith. In Islam there is no institution of the priesthood, therefore, the clergy and the laity are not opposed to each other. Become an Imam, i.e. «making the prayer», can any honest man, well versed in the Qur'an and ritual practice. The prayer of the believers should wear clean clothes after washing. During the prayers of believers turn face in the direction of Mecca. Direction to Mecca indicates the mihrab is the niche in the wall of the mosque. In the Qur'an clearly States the need for donations. Therefore, in Islam preached alms to the poor, the sick, caring for their families and are in need of assistance. It also requires the payment of alms (2,5%) acquired from the whole person in favor of the poor. In the ninth month of the lunar calendar Ramadan Muslims mandated post. The most important commandment is the Hajj. The pilgrimage takes place in a strictly defined time - in the month of zul-Hijjah, the fourth after Ramadan.
In Islam the biggest holidays are two: the Eid al-Fitr (Uraza-Bairam) - a holiday ðàçãîâåíèÿ after strict fasting in the month of Ramadan and Eid al-Adha (Kurban Bayram) - feast of the sacrifice, perpetrated during the Hajj. Muslims also with the great honors and deep respect celebrate the day of the birthday of the Prophet Muhammad, the night of his ascension, the night of the commandments and the night of power.
Sunnism and Shiism
In Islam there are two main currents - Sunnism and Shiism. They differ in matters of succession of spiritual authority. Sunnism is based on the Qur'an and the Sunnah (acts, deeds and the words of Mohammed) and recognizes the principle of electivity of the caliphs (successors of Muhammad). Shiism is based on the Qur'an and hadith (tradition), belonging to Ali and his descendants. Ali, the fourth Caliph, the husband of Muhammad's daughter Fatima. Shiism recognizes the 12 imams, who are direct descendants of Ali. Adherents of this movement also believe in coming to the world shortly before the judgment hidden Imam, the Mahdi, who will establish equality and justice.
In Islam there is also the mystical Sufism, here the accent is on the emotional and intuitive side of the religious experience. The main objectives of Sufism are: the complete dissolution of the human consciousness in the mind of God, a direct emotional experience experience of communion with God, the search of inner spiritual life.