Orthodox pilgrimage. Religious centers in Russia and CIS countries
The history of the Orthodox pilgrimage
Some Russian scientists believe that one of the first Russian Orthodox pilgrimage trip was Princess Olga at Constantinople for performing the rite of baptism. Under Prince Vladimir pilgrimage to mount Athos did the monk Antonii, the future founder of the Kiev-Pechersk Lavra. In 1062, the hegumen Varlaam made the first pilgrimage to the Holy land. In the beginning of XII century hegumen Daniel has twice visited and described the Holy land. In 1389-1391, deacon Ignatius made a pilgrimage to Jerusalem and made a description of the temples, monasteries and other shrines. In 1418-1421, иеродьякон Зосим described the Holy mountain of Athos. The heyday of pilgrimage began in the NINETEENTH century. In 1857, installed flights steamers from Odessa to Jaffa. In 1882, the Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich created the Imperial Orthodox Palestinian society for the provision of assistance to pilgrims travelling to the Holy land. From 1893 in Russia began to be sold «pilgrim books» with reduced to 35% tariff on transportation on Russian Railways. Popular become a pilgrimage tours within Russia. In the early twentieth century in Diveevo, where the relics of Seraphim of Sarov, every day arrived 3 thousand of pilgrims. One of the main centers of pilgrimage became the Trinity-Sergius Lavra, in which daily came to venerate the relics of St. Sergius of Radonezh to 5 thousand pilgrims. The pilgrimage has played and plays an important role in the life of society.
Objects of visiting of Orthodox pilgrims: the temple; monastery; the incorrupt relics; Holy springs.
The decision of the pilgrimage is the blessing of his spiritual father and yourself. The main objects of pilgrimage - monasteries. In Russia 313 monasteries and 26 of the desert of the ROC. In the countries of the CIS, there are still 183 Orthodox monastery of the Russian Orthodox Church.
In Russia there are 8 places of burial of the saints:
1) Svyato-Troitsky Serafimo-Diveevsky monastery (St. Seraphim of Sarov) in the Nizhniy Novgorod region;
2) the Holy Trinity Alexandro-Svirsky monastery (hegumen Alexander) in the Leningrad region;
3) Zadonsk Bogoroditsky monastery (St. Tikhon of Zadonsk) in the city. Zadonsk, Lipetsk region;
4) the chapel of the Blessed Xenia (St. Xenia of St. Petersburg) at the Smolensk cemetery in St. Petersburg;
5) the Holy Trinity Sergiev Lavra (the monk Sergei of Radonezh) in the city. Sergiev Posad, Moscow region;
6) Svyato-Vvedenskaya Optina Pustyn (Ambrose of Optina) in the city. Kozelsk, Kaluga region;
7) the Pokrovsky Cathedral (the Holy. Mitrophan) in the city. Voronezh;
8) John's monastery (St. St. John of Kronstadt) in St. Petersburg.
In the practice of pilgrimage tourism adopted by the classification of the monasteries on the following grounds:
1) according to country of origin;
2) on the location in terms of transport accessibility;
3) on the composition of the bearing monastic vows;
4) the age of the monastery.
It should highlight some of the features of the reception of pilgrims in various monasteries:
1) monasteries, the host pilgrims only by preliminary agreement or the blessing of the rector;
2) monasteries, the host pilgrims for a limited time or for an unlimited period of residence;
3) monasteries, providing the opportunity to accommodation with meals or do not provide such services;
4) monasteries, receiving only men or the pilgrims of both sexes;
5) monasteries, which charge a fee for the provision of accommodation and food or not fee-charging;
6) monasteries on the territory of which are located museums, library, or have no such facilities;
7) monasteries on the territory of which were organized the Orthodox Sunday school, diocesan schools, orphanages, almshouses or do not have such social facilities.