The evolution of tourism. Classification of tourism
In modern domestic and foreign literature produced many approaches to the definition of "tourism".
These approaches are based on different attributes and can be combined in the following groups:
- Tourism as a temporary movement of people, their presence is a constant environment and temporary stay in the caller of tourist interest;
- Tourism as a complex socio-economic system, which was based on a multi-industrial complex, called the tourist industry;
- Tourism as a segment of the market economy, in which the interaction between the various enterprises of the economic complex in order to offer products satisfying tourist interest;
- Tourism as a temporary departure of citizens and stateless persons in their free time with a permanent residence in the health, educational, professional, sports, religious, business, educational and other purposes for a period of not less than 24 hours and no more than 6 months and not in paid work in temporary accommodation.
The last definition of "tourism", in our opinion, is the most comprehensive because it takes into account all the characteristics that distinguish tourism from travel and other types of movement. The most important feature that defines tourist movements - free time man. Under the free time to be understood in tourism vacation, holidays, weekends and holidays, the time after retirement. The second most important feature of tourism - the purpose of travel. The definition of these objectives are clearly identified: health, educational, professional, sports, religious, business, educational. The third feature set a time frame of tourist movements - not less than 24 hours and no more than 6 months, which is very important for the tourism statistics and tourism industry of the economy. The fourth feature characterizing tourist movement, inability to provide training in a remunerated activity in a place of temporary residence. This means that in addition to the tourist must have free time and free money, he is willing to spend for a specific purpose related to recreation and restoration.
Modern tourism - the phenomenon, on the one hand, young, because he was a mass only after the Second World War, on the other hand, tourism has deep historical roots, for travel known to mankind since ancient times.
In the history of the development of tourism is customary to distinguish four stages:
Х Prior to the XIX century. - Background to tourism;
Х beginning of XIX century. - The beginning of XX century. - An elite tourism, the emergence of specialized companies for the production of tourist services;
Х beginning of the twentieth century. - Before the Second World War - the emergence of a mass social tourism;
Х After World War II - the current stage - a massive social tourism, the formation of the tourism industry as a complex interdisciplinary production of goods and services to tourists.
The basis of this periodization of the following criteria: technical and economic conditions, social conditions, the objective functions of tourism at different stages of development. In the first phase of development of tourism were the main motives for travel trade, educational goals, pilgrimage and treatment. In the Middle Ages the religious factor increased travel - worship shrines of Christianity and Islam. During the Renaissance, the religious component of tourism has been somewhat weakened, and the strengthened educational and cognitive motivations of travelers. Especially trips to the beginning of the XIX century. a primitive means of transportation, travel was not an end in itself but a necessary condition to achieve their goals: trade businesses, expanding educational horizons, treatment, pilgrimage. All travelers united by one quality: they were a minority, the elite of society.
Crucial role in the development of tourism played a revolutionary change in transport: the invention of the steamship (American Robert Fulton in 1807) and the engine (the Englishman George Stephenson in 1814), the improvement of postal services, accompanied by the expansion of road networks in Europe. All this resulted in reliability and speed while reducing the cost of travel. In the middle of XIX century. shipping companies were first stationed at the base of cruise tourism. During the second stage of development of tourism in the community are such things as changing the balance of work and time to rest. In Germany in 1873, were first introduced paid leave, there was a reduction of working time in favor of the free. Improving the quality and reliability of transport together with their cheaper, and the gradual reduction of working hours caused a significant increase in the flow of travelers. In this period there are special accommodations to serve travelers. In Germany in 1801 in Baden-Baden has opened a first-class hotel "Badischer Hoff" in Switzerland in 1812, the hotel was built, "Riga - Klesterli", opened in 1859, the hotel "Grand Hotel Shvaytserhoff" in the town of Interlaken in the central Switzerland. In this period were built luxury hotels that catered to members of aristocratic circles and senior officers. In the second half of the XIX century. tourism industry expanded its production: the means placing added travel agencies, whose task is the organization of tourist trips and sales to the consumer. A textbook example is the tourist office of T. Cook's, founded in the middle of XIX century. in the UK. The first travel agency in Germany - "Reisebuero Stange" - was founded in Breslau in 1863 this company had close contacts with the shipping companies and are actively selling sea cruise tours. Beginning in 1862 there and the first catalog of tourist trips, reflecting the expansion of tourism demand.
The First World War, the economic depression of the 1930s. and World War II had a negative impact on the development of tourism. But it was in this period between the two world wars there were germs of mass tourism, culminating in the postwar decades.
After the Second World War, tourism became a truly mass social. Leisure industry began to take shape with its institutions, product, production cycle, methods of organization and management. This is a period of mass construction of hotels, motels, various entertainment facilities. Expanded hotel chain appeared family hotel, there was a rapid growth both inbound and outbound tourism.
After the Second World War, in supply and demand in the tourism market has undergone fundamental changes, which give reason to say that the massive pipeline, tourism has become gradually transformed into a mass differentiated tourism. Conveyor tourism involves the relative homogeneity of primitivism and the needs and motivations of tourists, impersonal, conveyor character of service products. Differentiated tourism paradigm distinguishes diverse needs and motivations of tourists, multiple niche segments in tourism demand, a variety of services and a pronounced specialization of tourist offer. The transition from the conveyor to differentiated tourism occurred simultaneously with the transition from the market of producers to the consumer market. It was at this time emerging new forms of tourism, due to extraordinary individual needs of tourists.
Tourism in the modern world is manifested in different phenomena, connections and relationships that determines whether it is classified, that is, a homogeneous group of individual characteristics, depending on the specific practical purposes.
The most common classification of tourism is its division into types, categories, types and forms.
Type of tourism is determined by the nationality of the tourists.
In accordance with the recommendations of the WTO for a single country the following types of tourism:
- Domestic travel - travel of citizens within the state borders of their own country;
- Inbound tourism - travel resident within the borders of a country;
- Outbound tourism - travel residents of one country to any other country.
The above types of tourism differently combined together to form the following categories of tourism:
- Tourism within the country comprises domestic and inbound tourism;
- The national tourism includes domestic and outbound tourism;
- International travel includes inbound and outbound tourism;
These categories can be applied to a particular country, the region in the country or the region, including several countries.
Functional classification of tourism is determined to travel.
According to these features distinguish the following types of tourism:
- Health and beauty;
The most common are the recreational and educational tourism.
Recreational tourism is diverse and can include spectacular entertainment programs, hunting, fishing, music and artwork, visit sports events as a spectator, etc.
Medical and health tourism due to the need for treatment of various diseases and health promotion after diseases. Here you can talk about the stages with extremely therapeutic purposes, to treat any severe diseases, rehabilitation of injuries, accidents, surgeries and rounds of therapeutic, in support of youth, beauty and health, stress and fatigue.
Cognitive (excursion) tourism includes visits to familiarize with the natural, historical and cultural attractions, museums, theaters, and traditions of the peoples in the country visited. The trip may include educational and recreational purposes at the same time.
Business travel covers with business or professional purposes without the income of temporary residence. This type of tourism WTO classifies travel to participate in congresses, scientific congresses and conferences, production meetings and seminars, trade fairs, exhibitions, saloons, and for the negotiation and conclusion of contracts, installation and commissioning of equipment. Business includes business travel, convention and exhibition tourism and incentive tourism (incentive - incentive, inducement). Incentive tourism is a travel management company provided to employees free of charge as a reward for good work. Incentives, as a rule, provide a good quality service for an "all inclusive". Overall share of business travel is 10 to 20% in the volume of international tourism.
Sport tourism involves travel for sporting events in different countries and regions. It, in turn, can be divided into professional and amateur tourism. As "special forms of tourism," we are interested in amateur tourism, which can be classified as follows: winter and summer, as well as water, air, desert and mountain sports.
Ethnic tourism aims to visit the place of birth or origin of the family, as well as the residence of relatives and / or friends. This type of tourism is called nostalgic (nostalgie tour). Priority to this type of tourism is for countries where a large diaspora of people born in other countries. Tourists from Germany, for example, are popular trip to the Volga, and the tourists from Finland - in Karelia, Lake Ladoga (about 500 thousand Finns were forced to leave this place in time of war, 1939-1945.). Distributed to ethnic tourism and the Chinese diaspora which has more than 60 million people.
Religious tourism is based on the religious needs of the people of various faiths. Religious tourism can be called ancient, its roots go back to ancient times. It has two main varieties: Pilgrim Tourism (alone should provide spiritual pilgrimage direction) and religious tourism excursions and cognitive orientation. Religious tourism in some denominations is different.
Transit tourism in line with the recommendations of the WTO includes two varieties:
- Movement of passengers who do not enter the country, but only change to make a connecting flight;
- Movement of tourists who travel to the place of final destination with a little stop for connecting flights to other countries.
Educational tourism involves tours lasting from 15 days to 3 months to upgrade skills or improve knowledge on various subjects. The most popular at present are educational tours to study foreign languages ??or improve knowledge of a foreign language.
Depending on how organizations allocate organized and unorganized tourism.
Organized tourism involves pre-designed and organized by the tourist travel programs for tourists / travelers according to their wishes and budget. Advance booking of tourist firm and pays all travel services along the entire route, makes all the necessary travel documents.
Unorganized tourism suggests that the tourists themselves, without the participation and / or mediation of tourist companies organize their trip. Independently develop a travel route, define objects tour visits, planning accommodations, process, travel documents, etc. The unorganized tourism in the world is very popular. Particularly in countries whose nationality can travel to other countries without issuing an entry visa (for example, the citizens of Schengen countries can travel across Europe freely, as U.S. citizens do not need an entry visa to the Schengen Agreement). Relatively short distances, a good transport network, the ability of the free cross-border neighboring countries, the availability of tour facilities and other important factors have influenced the fact that the share of the informal tourism in Europe is 80%.
For the duration of travel are the following types of tourism: short-term (tours "day off", a trip for up to 7 days), medium (tours lasting from 9 to 12 days) and long term (tours for a period of 15 to 30 days).
On the use of vehicles involved in the course of the trip, the following types of tourism:
- The railway;
- Motor-ship / water (sea and river);
- Other means of transportation.
From the intensity of visits to tourism can be divided into permanent and seasonal.
Under constant tourism should be understood relatively uniform visiting tourist regions and objects throughout the calendar year.
On seasonal tourism understand the visits of tourist regions, the frequency of which depends on the climatic conditions of the region and the subjective characteristics of the tourist facility. For seasonal species include recreational tourism, convention and exhibition tourism. The seasonality of tourism also has an impact type of tourism. Distinguish between high, medium and low season. High season is characterized by the terms of the most valuable use of tourists tourist resources. The seasonality of a particular type of tourism have a major impact climatic factors, national and religious holidays, vacations, public events.
Depending on the age group of tourists are the following types of tourism:
- For the third age.
The World Tourism Organization proposed the following gradation of tourists by age: children traveling with adults (15 years), youth (15-24 years), economically active young travelers (25-44 years), economically active tourists in middle age (45-64 years), the tourists of the third age (65 years).
In the practice of enterprises tourism industry for statistical purposes are the following age categories:
0-2 years - Infant (baby);
3-12 years - the child;
14-18 years - a schoolboy;
18-25 years - young people (students);
26-45 years - adults;
46-65 years - adults;
65 years and older - retired (the third age).
For tourism planning age is important in terms of motivation and financial support of travel tourist travel.
Source of funding tourism can be divided into commercial and social types.
Commercial tourism is aimed at obtaining tourist enterprises profit is the main source for the development of production services. In an effort to maximize profits, travel agencies are constantly looking for the best mix between the magnitude of the costs and the final price of the product tour. They provide tourism services are focused on customers with medium and high-income countries.
Social tourism is subsidized by funds allocated to social spending in order to create conditions for certain categories of tourism. Subsidies are both from the government and from private foundations and charities. In Manila Declaration states that "social tourism - is the goal to which society should strive for the benefit of the poorer citizens."
The concept of tourism is based on three main principles:
1) providing recreation all within the community through involvement in tourism environment of low-income countries;
2) subsidizing tourist arrivals poor people;
3) participation of state, municipal and public institutions in the development of tourism.
This concept is realized in practice in Switzerland, Germany and France with holiday vouchers. In Russia, this type of tourism is realized through social insurance schemes and presented primarily medical and health tourism.
There are recent and in demand new types of tourism: ecotourism, agrotourism, Exotic adventure and extreme tourism.
The appearance on the market of these new services due to many factors: technological change, providing new opportunities to travel, urbanization, in connection with which there is a desire to reduce stress and to abstract from the routine of life, and at a certain stable level of income that allows you to travel , there is a surfeit of standard tourist programs.
The main objective of ecotourism - acquaintance with the natural values, ecological education and training of people. Feature of the organization of this type of tourism is to ensure minimum impact on the environment when making travel arrangements, creating a network of ecological hotels, providing travelers environmentally friendly food, etc. Ecotourism includes visits to clean areas (reserves, sanctuaries, botanical gardens, national parks) , unmodified or minimally modified by human activity. As part of eco-tourism can be identified environmental education tours, in ecosystems, wildlife photography.
Agritourism (rural tourism, rural tourism) includes visiting tourists countryside for recreation and / or entertainment organization in clean (relatively towns) areas. Preconditions for its development, distribution, and increasing popularity are: growing urbanization, the availability of many holiday at a reasonable price, the ability to supply environmentally friendly and healthy fresh food, a desire to be out in nature.
The main motives for choosing the type of holiday village tourism can be considered as follows:
- Lack of funds for the rest on expensive fashionable resort or hotel;
- A well-established way of life in rural areas;
- The need for improvement in climatic conditions recommended by a doctor;
- Proximity to the natural environment and the opportunity to spend a great time outdoors, in the forest;
- The opportunity to eat organic food;
- An urgent need for calm life;
- An opportunity to join a different culture and customs.
Agritourism organization provided the following tasks: creation of special "tourist villages", the formation of "rural" tours with accommodation and food in the village houses (families), located in ecologically clean regions. Agritourism "one day" is widely distributed in Canada and the United States. People can come to the country in the fields and plantations, and they collect the required amount of fruit or vegetables. On the one hand, this is a kind of recreation and entertainment for the people of the city, on the other - saving them money (fruits and vegetables for self-assembly cost is much cheaper than buying them in stores), and farmers to avoid cash costs of transportation and implementation of the crop. In the U.S., for example, young people before the holiday Halloween company or family prefers to go out of town for a picnic and relax yourself on the field choose your favorite pumpkin for the popular festival.
Exotic adventure and extreme tourism associated with visits to exotic places (islands, volcanoes, waterfalls, deserts, etc.) and adventure activities (jeep safari, rafting, diving, tours on elephants, camels, balloons, etc.).
The special forms of tourism can also include such direction as timeshare. This type of tourism has appeared in Russia recently, but not gained much popularity in connection with a specific unsuitability for Russian citizens (for them, the main problem is to obtain entry visas to the country in which they are purchased timeshare, and significant cash expenditures in the organization of forced solo trip to the place of final destination).
The special forms of tourism include tours that are fully or partially characterized by the following features:
1) non-mass, are rare forms of tourism;
2) time-consuming to create the final tourism product;
3) capital-intensive forms of tourism;
4) tours that combine features of different types of tourism;
5) new types of tourism due to the secondary needs of man;
6) forms of tourism with traditional funding sources.
The special, the most common type of tourism that meet the requirements listed above, include the following:
1) religious tourism;
- Exhibition and Tourism - Incentive tourism;
3) medical and health tourism;
5) Event tourism;
6) ski tourism;
7) adventure tourism;
8) cruise tourism.
Categories and the number of special forms of tourism are not given once and for all. With the changing needs of the tourists may be new special types, and at the same time, a number of special forms of tourism can gradually move into the category of the ordinary and usual.