International tourism is playing an increasingly important role in the global economy. The new millennium was marked not only the rise of international tourist traffic, but also the emergence of new trends in the industry. Statistics show about sustainable growth of tourism. In 1950, the total number of tourists was 25 million, and revenues from tourism - U.S. $ 2.1 billion, in 1987, according to the WTO, these figures were respectively 363 million and 150 million in 2000, the number of travelers has reached 698 million and tourism receipts - more than 476 billion U.S. dollars. In 2002, the number of tourists was 702 million, foreign exchange earnings from international tourism reached 474 billion U.S. dollars. In 2007 the number of tourists, according to the WTO, was 898 million in the world economy Tourism accounts for 6% of the world's gross domestic product, 7% of world investment, 11% of global consumer spending. The increase in tourist traffic and arising from these changes in the socio-economic, financial and other fields have become an essential factor for economic growth and sustainable development of international relations. Currently, the tourism sector is growing rapidly and by 2010, close to one billion mark in tourist arrivals.
However, it should be noted the changes occurring in the tourist market, the emergence of new trends in the rapidly growing field of international tourism. One of the main features of the development of tourism is the uneven distribution of tourist flows in different regions and countries. Tourist flows are concentrated in a few regions of the world, and their movement is mainly intraregionalny character. Currently, there are the following proportions in tourist flows: groups of tourists are 25-35% of the total number of people traveling abroad, individual tourists, is 65-75%, go mainly to neighboring countries. The volume of travel for the purpose of recreation increased more rapidly compared to the amount of business travel. However, it should be noted a significant increase incentive tours. The researchers note that with the growth of the service demands of tourists tourism product itself is becoming more sophisticated, increasing its complexity and capital intensity. This is largely due to the emergence of new forms of tourism and sustainable development of special types. In the last five years prior to the tourist industry in acute need of conservation and development as recreational resources and tourism resources in general. This led to the emergence and development of this form of tourism as ecotourism. With the development of science and technology, urbanization, tehnokratizatsii life for man becoming increasingly attractive natural landscape, clean water, flora and fauna. It is because of the craving for communion with nature there is such kind of tourism as rural (rural) tourism. These special types of tourism are becoming widespread, which makes the problem of management of tourist flows. Receive tourists in destinations characterized by their concentration per 1,000 or per unit area. If the concentration of tourism overfished, environmental damage occurs and there is a destruction of the most unspoiled nature, for which tourists and coming. One thing
with the emergence of new types of tourism sustainably develop these special types, such as religious, medical and health, business and event tourism.
The tutorial systematized knowledge on the classification of tourism, the internal structure of tourism activities, basic special forms of tourism. The purpose of the manual is to guide the structure of the special forms of tourism, the characteristics of territories and regions of their distribution, revealing features of the practical organization of special types of tourism.
The manual is intended for students enrolled in "Economics and Management of Tourism and Hospitality Management."