The effectiveness of any tour depends on the technology of its conduct, the relationship between methods and techniques of management. On the Technique of tours meet a number of requirements. These include: familiarity with the group guide, correct placement of the object, yield tourists from the bus and return to the bus (other vehicle), use of a guide microphone compliance time frame for the trip in general, and the disclosure of the individual sub-topics, the answers to the questions tourists, etc.
Introducing the guide with the group. The guide went into the bus, met with the group. He greets the audience, his last name, first name, a tour agency that represents and introduces tourists to the bus driver, ie tour starts coming.
It is important that from the start of the tour to subordinate their established rules of communication with the group. He did not immediately begins to speak. A pause that lasts ten to twenty seconds. Occurs first introduction of it depends largely on the guide further contacts with the group. Tourists are gradually fall silent, comfortably seated, their attention is turning to the guide. Tourists are assessing what can guide that will tell them interesting, and the guide is thinking about how to interest these people how to rivet their attention to the subject.
If properly organized excursion work preparing for it to happen in advance. Organizers do this tour or travel agents.
Plot tours must be known in advance tourists. Camper must know the theme tours. It is extremely important that the advertising and purchase excursion tickets were separated from the tour one-two days. This is significant in the sense that during this time will known psychological setting tripper. He has time to think about it and get used to plot trips.
Each topic its introduction. If the group is different (for example, the local population and visiting tourists, adults and children), in the same tour will have different entry. The guide draws particular attention to the preparation and execution of the entry, which gives specific installation excursionists, can establish contact with them.
Exit the bus trippers (trolley, tram). To exit the tourists need to plan ahead. In cases where this is not done, a large part of the group is to sit in the bus, staying to observe monuments on their location. Thus lose the opportunity to sightseers personal acquaintance with the subject.
Number of stops with the release of the group should be called in his opening remarks, explaining the value of output, interest is exotic, unusual object.
At bus stops, which provides the output tour group, the tour guide goes first, showing an example of a group and determine the direction of its movement to the object. In cases where the tours arranged other stops, such as health or to purchase souvenirs, tour guide tells the exact time (hour and minute) bus departure. Must be required to respect the rules of tourists trips, which affects the schedule of the bus route. If the stay in the country for some reason trips reduced or enlarged, the tour guide inform all tourists.
The alignment of the object. In developing the tour, usually defined several options for tour groups to observe the object. This is done on a case where the place a certain methodological developments, occupied by another group, or when the sun shines in the eyes, making it difficult to examine the object. There are other reasons that prevent the use recommended place. In the hot season are used to locate possible groups in the shade. In case of rain provides accommodation option tourists under the roof, under the tree canopy. In some cases, the procedure requires that the examination of the object selected several points: Further, if the object is shown together with the environment or other objects; near, when analyzed by individual parts of the building, structure, place, object, nature. These features are reflected in the "Organized instructions methodical development." Each tour is carefully studying these instructions and with the band before the release of the route clarifies issues related to the placement of objects to monitor. It should also ensure the safety of tourists during the inspection of facilities and when crossing the highway.
At the same time the location of several groups at the same object between them should be kept such a distance that one guide his story did not interfere with the other, so that one group is not obscured by another object of observation. Certain difficulties in this condition causes the placement of groups to display the museum exhibition.
Movement of tourists from the bus to the object from the object to the bus by a group of between objects. Place guide - in the center of the group, a few people are ahead, some near, others - behind. It is important that the group not stretched: the distance between her head and those who follow the latest, must not exceed 5.7 meters. The guide should ensure that when traveling on the route of integrity is not compromised. When stretching of the group did not hear all the story of the guide, its explanation and logical transitions, which are set out on the road. Experienced guides skillfully led the movement on the route.
Rate of movement depends on the composition of groups (children, youth, middle age, elderly), the terrain, such as climbing a hill, deplorable roads, overcoming ditches, working in dangerous areas factories, etc.
In a walking tour of the rate of movement of tourists slow, deliberate, since the objects are shown next to each other.
More difficult to establish the desired rate of movement of the bus tour. It came out of the bus, the guide begins to move at once, especially if the subject is in the distance. It makes it possible for most tourists get off the bus, and then, slowly, but not too slowly, led a team sent to the target. Approaching the subject, he begins his story not once, but after the meet the whole group.
The guide directs the movement of tourists and in their independent work on the route. Tourists go around the object to yourself to read the inscription on it, enter into it, to see the original architectural features. They climb the hill to determine its height, rise to the bell tower, the minaret to make the unusual "step" steps steep stairs down into the moat to determine its depth, etc. These movements of tourists enrich them with additional information and new experiences, provide the opportunity to experience the unique features of objects, especially the events that are the focus tour.
The return of tourists on the bus. During the movement of the group is headed by a tour guide. When boarding the bus group, he is on the right of the entrance and recounts tourists that come to the salon. This is done by. Making sure you get all the participants of the trip, he enters the last bus and the driver takes the symbol of the beginning of the movement.
Counters should avoid tourists, have already taken place on the bus. This introduces unnecessary nervousness, sometimes causes comic situations, thereby breaking the course excursions.
Place the guide. The tour guide on the bus should take a place from where he can see well the objects in question on trips, but that in his vision were all tourists. At the same time, tourists have to see it. Typically, this is a designated front passenger seat (seat behind the driver is for the other driver). Be the tour guide while driving the bus (as well as to tourists) are not permitted for safety reasons.
On a walking tour guide should be positioned half-turned to the subject. Conducting display of visual objects requires that they appear to the tour guide, as he analyzes them on the basis of their visual impressions. This is particularly important in the country excursions, when the tour guide while driving the bus, sitting in his place with his back to excursionists, looks into the front window of the bus and said that already seeing or about to see tourists.
Compliance with the time in the tour. The methodical development is the exact time allowed for the disclosure of each chapter in minutes. It has everything: display objects, a story guide, travel route and move on to the next group about the observed objects. Ability to meet the time limit for the tour guide does not come immediately. This requires a lot of practice, including tours of the watch in hand: at home, at a particular facility. It is necessary to achieve compliance with the time during the logical transition, covering individual sub-themes and key issues. Tour guide helps timekeeping time spent parts of excursions. Based on this timing, listening to the comments, the guide makes the appropriate adjustments to the story. Of trips removed all unnecessary, leading to over-time. Often the tour for reasons beyond the control of the guide is substantially reduced over time. Is guilty of lingering charges of not timely filed tourists breakfast, late buses, etc. As a result, the tour starts with a delay. In the guide there is one way out - to reduce the time allotted for opening theme. This should be done by keeping all the main tour in the content and removing minor. For this we need to prepare for a possible reduction of the material excursions.
Technique of the story while driving the bus. Story while driving in a bus tour should be conducted through a microphone. If the equipment does not function or the microphone is absent, the tour guide to lead the story in motion is useless. Engine noise and shaking bus audibility limit, so that the explanation will be audible only to tourists sitting near. In this case, the material of the nearest part of the route guide gives before the movement, and in the course of the movement said only the names of objects or areas. In the presence of important objects or localities need to stop the bus, turn off the engine, and only then give explanations. This should be agreed in advance with the driver.
Answers to questions of tourists. In practice, there is a certain excursion classification issues. They are divided into four groups: the guide questions that are answered by tourists, issues raised in the story that are answered by the guide, rhetorical questions that are put to intensify attention of tourists, the questions asked by the participants on the theme. The first three sets of questions related to the method of conducting tours and a fourth group of questions relates to the technique of guided tours. Their content varies - sometimes they are associated with objects, sometimes - with the lives of famous figures, and often - with events not related to the theme tours. The main rule of dealing with such issues - should not interrupt the story and give an immediate response to them, do not need to also answer questions at the end of each of the sub-themes. It's distracting and distracts the audience from the perception of the content of the disclosed subject, because not everyone in the group concerned about these issues. Therefore, the tour guide should not answer questions during the tour, and at its end. Of responses should not have a basis for discussion, ie arouse tourists wish to argue, to continue the theme raised in the question.
Making the introduction to the topic, the guide tells his listeners that order the answers to questions.
Pause in the tour. The guide should not talk continuously. Between different parts of the story, the story and the excursion certificate in a way logical progression and a story about the object and the events associated with it, should be small breaks.
Pause pursue the following objectives:
- First - of meaning, when the breaks used by people to reflect on what they have heard from the tour guide and saw with my own eyes. To fix the actual material in memory, formulating its conclusions and remember what they see. It is important that tourists had every object free from the show and story time for self-examination, preparation for the perception of what will be shown and discussed at the next stop;
- The second - to give short break tourists. It does not assume any semantic value. This is especially important for those who are not used to such an active form of cultural and educational work as the tour.
Pauses in town tours are combined with relaxation, which in accordance with the existing order of the tour guide is available 15 minutes after each hour of work (for a reference guide hour tour is 45 minutes). This holiday can be summarized and used a guide at the end of the tour. In excursions can also pause - free time is used to purchase souvenirs, printed matter, thirst, and for sanitary stops in long trips.
The technique of using "portfolio guide." The content of "portfolio guide", its meaning and role in the use of techniques shown relates to the method of preparation and conduct tours. Each exhibit - photography, drawing, fine art, portrait, drawing, a copy of the document - has its own serial number. This determines the sequence of the exhibit show to tourists.
The exhibit can be shown to guide his job, handed over to the ranks of tourists for more details.
Sometimes because of the methodological design guide organizes playback tape and video recordings. It is important to check whether your equipment in advance, that the necessary records to ensure audibility for all participants of the excursion. The guide should be able to use this equipment.
During the guided tour using the elements of ritual (ceremonial elaborated folk customs). Sightseers at gravesites and memorials commemorating a minute of silence, there by changing the guard of honor, participate in marches and rallies, listen mourning melodies. Tour guide is necessary to know the order of laying flowers, passing tourists in the locations of mass graves and obelisks, to participate in the honor guard, a minute's silence, the rules of conduct at the eternal flame on the graves of the heroes of the Civil and Great Patriotic War (1941-1945.) And other wars. Before the beginning of the tour guide tells everything, stressing the importance of respecting the ritual when visiting historical sites.
Of the issues associated with the technique of guided tours, it is difficult to overestimate. Neither the fascinating story about the objects or instructional techniques show no monuments will that effect, if not seriously thought out all aspects of its implementation, unless the conditions for the observation of objects.
1. The concept of "technology excursions."
2. The content of the column "Organizational instructions."
3. Organization of the guide with the group.
4. Skillful use of the art tour.
5. Skills using techniques of guided tours.
6. Air movement of its value.
7. Using the microphone. Work without a microphone.
8. Establishment of the necessary order of the group.