Creating a new excursion on any topic - a complex process that requires the active participation of a team of workers. The content of future tours, her educational value are directly dependent on the knowledge of supervisors and guides, their skills, and the degree of practical learning of basic education and psychology, the ability to choose the most effective ways and means of influence on the audience.
Tour - is the result of two major processes: its preparation and implementation. They are interconnected, interdependent. It is impossible to provide a high quality of excursion with ill preparation.
In the preparatory work for the new tour are two main areas:
- Development of a new theme tours (new at all or only for this new tour agencies);
- Preparation of a beginner or already operating guide for the new to him, but had previously designed and implemented in the facility tour.
The first area - the process of creating a new institution for sightseeing tours.
Preparation of a new creative team assigned to guided tours. Its membership includes 3 to 7 people, and in some cases even more, depending on the complexity of the topic. Most of them are working in the institution guides. Often as consultants invited experts from various sectors - academic staff of museums, university and high school, etc.
Usually, each of the participants of the creative team tasked to develop one of the sections, one of the sub-themes of excursions or one or more issues of subtopics. In order to monitor the performance of selected head of the creative team.
Prepare the new tour goes through three main stages:
Preliminary work - the selection of materials for future trips, their study (ie, the accumulation of knowledge on the subject, the purpose and objectives excursions). At the same time there is a selection of objects that will be built excursion.
The direct development of most tours include: drafting the tour route, the actual processing of material to work on the content of excursions, its main part, consisting of a few basic questions, writing the control text, work on the methodology of the tour, the choice of the most effective instructional techniques and show the story during tours, training methodical development of new tours, writing guides individual texts.
The final stage - acceptance (protection) trips on the route. Approval of a new tour manager tour agencies, access guides, defended his theme, to work on the route.
In the simplest scheme of all trips, regardless of the topic, the type and format, the same: the introduction, main part, conclusion.
The introduction, as a rule consists of two parts:
- Organization (learning excursion group and instructing tourists on the rules of the road safety and behavior on the route);
- Information (short report on the subject, the extent and duration of the route, time of departure and arrival back sanitary stops and place the end of the tour).
The main part is based on the specific tour facilities, combined show and story. Its content consists of several sub-topics that should be disclosed on the objects and united by the theme. Number of sub-themes excursions usually from 5 to 12. An important to create a selection of objects tours so that was only the objects that help to reveal the content of the topic excursions, and in certain dosage over time and depending on the importance of a sub-topic in this excursion.
Finally, as the entry is not associated with sightseeing objects. It should take time for 5-7 minutes and consist of two parts. The first - the result of the main content of excursions, concluded on realizing the goal of excursions. Second - information on other tours, which can extend and deepen the subject. The conclusion is as important as the introduction, and the main part.
It is important that tour was quite interesting. But no less important, that it was not overloaded with unnecessary flow of tourists information, the method of presentation was tedious, and would contribute to the perception of its best in a category of tourists. In connection with this theme tours must necessarily be focused on a specific category of tourists (adults or children, youth, urban and rural residents, aid workers professions, foreigners, etc.). This accounting treatment is called differentiated approach to excursions. It must take into account not only the interests and goals of consumers. If the tour is available, for example, in the folk round, the main focus of the story and the show should be on history, monuments, and national characteristics of the region. If the tour is included in the Business tour, you should pay attention to the display of various business and community centers, etc. When organizing excursions in the resort industry attractive sightseeing tours to the observation of the natural landscape, monuments, objects.
In preparation for the new tours are a number of milestones, which are located in a specific order. Let us consider them in the order that has developed in the practice of tour agencies.
The concept of "stages of training trips" was coined in 1976 by that time it was called the fifteen steps:
1. Defining the purpose and objectives of the excursion.
2. Choosing a theme.
3. The selection of literature and a bibliography.
4. Identify the sources of the tour material. Familiarity with the expositions of museums and foundations on the subject.
5. Selection and study tour facilities.
6. Route planning trips.
7. Detour or bypass route.
8. Preparation of control text excursions.
9. Picking "portfolio guide."
10. Definition of techniques of excursion.
11. Definition techniques of guided tours.
12. Drafting of development.
13. Drawing up of individual texts.
14. Admission (surrender) excursions.
15. Adoption of the tour.
Defined goals and objectives EXCURSIONS
Working on any new tour begins with a clear definition of its purpose. This helps authors more organized trips to work in the future. The purpose of trips - is something for which are shown to tourists historical and cultural monuments and other objects. Story of the guide is subject to the same ultimate goal. To name a few purposes: promoting patriotism, love and respect for the country, socially useful work, to other nations, aesthetic education, and expanding horizons, additional knowledge in the various fields of science and culture, etc. Tasks excursions - to achieve the goals by expanding its theme.
SELECTION OF TOPICS
The choice depends on the topic of the potential demand, the particular order or purposeful creation of a specific topic excursions. Each tour must have their defined topic.
The theme is the core, which combines all the objects and sub-excursions together. Site selection when creating a tour of the creative team are constantly checking their material with the theme. However, few of the sites selected by subject, it is necessary to find a specific material on which this issue will be solved with the most complete and convincing. The grouping is in fact based on the existing classification excursions.
Selection of literature and a bibliography
During the development of a new tour, a list of books, pamphlets and articles published in newspapers and magazines, which reveal the subject. Appointment list - to determine the approximate boundaries of the work on the study of literary sources, to help guide in the use of necessary factual and theoretical material in the preparation of the text. References reproduce several copies for convenience in the group and guides those who in the future will be prepared for the tour on the subject. The list referred to author, title, year of publication, as well as chapters, sections, pages. With a large number of references list can be divided into two parts: "The primary literature" and "Further Reading."
DETERMINATION OF OTHER MATERIAL SOURCES EXCURSION
In addition to publishing in print, can be used by other sources. The authors of the excursion is a list of them, which includes the state archives, museums, documentaries and non-fiction films, which contains material on tour. The source can be used by the memories of participants and witnesses of historical events. However, using the memoir material in order to avoid inaccuracies and bias should be cautious. For the story to be selected only reliable, thoroughly checked the facts and information. Significant assistance in finding and organizing excursions material may have computer encyclopedia, including multimedia databases on the CD.
STUDY SELECTION AND tour facilities
Display objects, as already noted, is the part that has governed the tour. Correct selection of objects, their number, the sequence showing an impact on the quality of tours.
Currently, the state account is over 150 thousand monuments of history, archeology and culture, and in the museums of the country has about 40 million items.
The objects can be:
- Places connected with historical events in the life of our people, the development of society and the state (eg, Kulikovo, Borodino, site of the Battle of Kursk, etc.);
- Buildings, memorial sites related to the life and activities of prominent personalities, works of architecture and urban planning, residential and public buildings, industrial buildings, engineering structures (fortresses, bridges, towers), mausoleums, cultural buildings and other structures;
- Natural features - forests, trees, parks, rivers, lakes, ponds, forests and wildlife refuges, as well as individual trees, relict plants, etc.;
- Exposure state and national museums, art galleries, the permanent and temporary exhibitions;
- Archaeological - towns, ancient sites, settlements, mounds of the graves, embankments, roads, mining, pens, temples, canals, etc.;
- Works of art - works of fine art, decorative arts, sculpture, gardening and other art.
Excursion objects are classified into:
- Content - uniplanar (a painting, river, plant, animal, house) and diverse (architectural ensemble, forest, field, street, square);
-In functions - basic, which are the basis for the disclosure of sub-themes, and more, is shown during crossings (transitions) between the objects in the logical progression in the story;
- The degree of safety - The preserved, have survived with significant changes, partly preserved, lost.
Before sightseeing tour professionals to create a task - to select from a variety of the most interesting objects and appearance, and for the information they carry with them.
Proper site selection will provide a visual tour of the material basis of perception and depth of the topic. Should so organize this thing to the same objects do not wander from trips to the tour.
If possible, each topic should be "their" objects. The variety of objects enables you to provide the correct sequence of impressions from tourists, keeps an element of novelty in the study of different topics.
If you can not exclude a particular object of the proposed route because of its uniqueness (eg, the Bronze Horseman in Saint Petersburg, the Red Square in Moscow, etc.) that appear in a number of excursions (Overview, history, literature, art history), this object shall be disclosed separately. When his show should identify those features that are not reflected in the excursions to other topics. When showing these objects and the story depending on the topic every time should be used other material. Therefore, the interest of tourists in their re-examination is usually not reduced.
In practice, training tours to develop specific assessment methodology tour facilities. The use of this technique is particularly important in cases where the creators of the new tour, meeting on a route with several objects that are similar in content, can select those that are most interesting to the topic.
To assess the facilities, which are included in the tour, it is recommended to use the following criteria:
Educational value - the connection object to a specific historical event, from a certain age, the life and work of famous scientists and culture, the artistic merits of the monument, the possibility of their use in the aesthetic education of the participants of the excursion.
Known object, its popularity among the population (for example, items such as Red Square, the Ostankino television tower, a monument to the Millennium of Russia in Novgorod, etc.).
The unusual (exotic) object. This refers to a feature unique historical and cultural monuments, buildings, structures (for example, welded bridge named after EO Paton across the Dnieper in Kiev). The singularity of the object can also be due to a historical event, which took place in this building, on-site installation of the monument, with the legend or historical event (eg, the Church of Tsarevich Dmitry in Uglich, Church of the Savior on Spilled Blood in St. Petersburg on the spot death Tsar Alexander II). Exoticism can be of natural origin (such as stalactites, stalagmites karst caves in New Athos in Abkhazia).
The expressiveness of the object, ie external expression of the object, its interaction with the background environment - buildings, structures and nature. Preference is given to an object that best fits with the area, in harmony with other objects, with the landscape (for example, the building of Moscow University on Lenin Hills, the church of the Intercession on the Nerl (Vladimir), the bridges in St. Petersburg).
Conservation of the property. Assessment made of the object at the moment, his readiness to show to tourists.
Location of the object. In the selection of objects to be considered the distance to the monument, easy entrance to it, the suitability of the road for vehicles, bringing up the opportunity to object to tourists, the natural environment surrounding the object, space, suitable for the location of the group in order to observe.
Temporary restriction display object (by time of day, the days, months and seasons) - is when a visit and inspection of the object is not possible due to poor visibility or seasonality.
Tour should not be overloaded with a large number of visited objects, as this increases the duration and causes fatigue tourists, and the attention and interest in this weakened. The optimal duration of urban trips in the 2-4 academic hours, with tourists with interest perceive no more than 15-20 tour facilities.
The tour can include objects as one group (eg, architectural), and several groups (memorials, monuments, residential buildings, objects). A collection of objects depends on the theme tours, content, tour group. Wrong, for example, when the whole city tour based exclusively on the show sculptural monuments and monuments. Avoid visual monotony of building series. Visual impressions of tourists will be incomplete if the route along with the monuments and memorials is entered showing individual buildings and streets, squares, places of memory objects of nature.
In preparation for the new tour, more attention should be focused on objects on the ground, in their natural environment. Required input data from a study of the sources of objects - books, books, photos. Meeting with a tour of the object directly to its location, the study of its different sides allow the tour guide in the future, working with the group, freely navigate the monument, efficiently conduct his show.
Site selection ends drawing card (passport) for each of them. These cards are used for specifically developed themes, and for future trips.
The card object contains the following information:
1) the name of the object (the original and modern), and the name under which the monument is known in the population;
2) the historical event that is associated with the monument, date of the event;