In teaching teaching method is a system of rules and methods of teaching science, transfer of knowledge to students, and a system of training techniques and education of youth. Method was its name from the Greek word "method", which literally means "the path to something," and the path of knowledge or research, theory, teaching. Technique in a broad sense - a set of purposeful way of a work, a solution to a problem, to achieve the goal, and in the narrower sense is a set of techniques specific lectures, discussions, excursions to a topic, and to a certain group.
Methodology is divided into common and private. General methodology encompasses methods of training and the requirements that are the basis for the study of many sciences (consistency and clarity of presentation of educational material, it is accessible to the audience.) Private methods, based on the general method of installation, determine the ways and means of training and education of children and adults, methods of observation, study and research of various objects. Thus, each individual techniques related to specific science and follows from the very nature of the subject, is the basis of a certain activity.
Guided technique is a private method, because it deals with the process of dissemination of knowledge on the basis of one form of work. Guided technique is a set of rules and requirements imposed on the tour, and the amount of training and instructional techniques guided tours of different species on different subjects and for different groups of people.
Guided technique is addressed in several ways: as a basis of professional skills of guides, as a mechanism to constantly improving "supply" of the material, as the process of streamlining the guide. Guided technique serves as a lever, which helps to guide in the short period of time to move into the consciousness of tourists a wealth of knowledge. Technique helps to tourists to see, to remember and understand much more than a lecture, revealing the same topic. This is because that the methodology of the lecturer is in large part based on various reports and descriptions, lecture story is separated from objects of description. Almost lecture process neutralizes part in perception of the senses, as sight, smell, and touch. This situation depletes perception, making it "one-sided".
The method is based on communicating tours tourists with objects of different types of analysis, visual comparisons, given the possibility to use all the senses of tourists. Guided technique is based on a philosophy that is a system of ideas and views on the world around us and the place of man in it. Of philosophical science teaching methodology takes on dialectics, the theory of knowledge and logic. Dialectics  makes it possible to cover the material in a field trip to the necessary depth, correctly assess historical events, phenomena and facts, make informed judgments on the subject. The theory of knowledge helps to better understand the complex processes that occur in nature, society, guided by scientific knowledge in practice.
Guided technique comes from the fact that the tour is a dialectical unity of content, tools, forms, and specific method impact on the audience - a tour of the method. This impact is made with the specifications requirements and interests of different groups.
The subject of the excursion technique is focused study, organize, define, understand and apply in practice, means and methods of education and training, and instructional techniques by which employees tour agencies operate. Guided technique summarizes the experience of conducting tours, developing and offering such instructional techniques that have proved themselves in practice and offer the highest performance and the perception of disclosure issues.
Caring for the excursion method - it is not only the efforts to improve the organization of methodical work of its links. This is the work of deepening the content of the techniques of techniques as ways the most perfect submission tour material and the most efficient of the topic excursions. Acting as a private method, excursion technique deals with instructional techniques excursions. At the same time it serves as a general method. This happens in cases when it comes to the use of guided tours of the principles and requirements common to all forms of ideological education - clarity, scientific, systematic, accessibility, credibility, etc.
Guided technique is more complex issues such as the definition and practical use of the methods of display objects. The method shown in most of its tools and techniques is an original character. This technique is used only in the promotion of the excursion.
As for the story on the tour, then it guides use conventional forms of speech - the inquiry, conversation, description, explanation, comment, cento. Significant part in the story of techniques borrowed from the arsenal of the guide lecturing art.
Any methodology - is the ability to produce some work in strict accordance with the optimal rules, guidelines, and ensure its high efficiency. In practice - is the sum of certain skills to work: to develop a new tour, cook holding regular tours, conduct a tour of the recommended technologies, consolidate the excursionists knowledge, improve their skills.
Methods excursion work answers the following questions:
1. What is prepared and conducted tour (goals, objectives)?
2. What issues are covered on trips (which is dedicated to its content)?
3. How to conduct a guided tour (instructional techniques)?
4. How to initiate and maintain the attention of tourists? Guided technique consists of several independent, interconnected parts:
- Development of a new methodology for the organization of excursions topic;
- Development methodology guide his new topic, but it worked out in the organization;
- How to prepare a guide for the next excursion;
- Methods of excursion;
- Techniques posleekskursionnoy work.
Most deeply developed a method of conducting tours. This methodology is divided into two parts: the method of displaying and narrative technique. The methodology of the show can be distinguished as separate parts of the following techniques: the use of "portfolio guide", promoting the use of technology, monitoring, learning and research facilities.
Guided technique as a set of these parts has its own characteristics with respect to the kinds of excursions (urban, suburban, industrial, museum) and in each topic. These features are defined objectives, which are set before the tour, as well as the target installation (for example, the expansion of cultural horizons adult or vocational counseling adolescents). Features are defined as views of excursions, the theme, the composition of the group. There are differences in how to conduct tours for conventional, mass audience and to students of economic and professional training of workers, have the features hiking tours, bus, etc.
Guided technique is closely related to such concepts as the show and the story. Show and story are the basic elements tours, activities guide. A method of displaying and narrative technique - two main sections excursion technique.
The method of the show - most of the excursion technique in volume and complexity of preparation and implementation. Narrative technique - lower part of the methodology, which bears against the first part of the subordinate. Display technique is complex because it is, as mentioned earlier, is original in itself and unlike the story technique is not applied in any of the other forms of ideological education and cultural work. Therefore possible borrowing of techniques from other methods.
REQUIREMENTS METHODS Tour
The method makes clear requirements to all excursion process, organization and content. The entire multifaceted work on preparation and conducting tours must be constructed in accordance with the procedures for the selection sightseeing tour facilities. Should be selected to observe objects that are relevant to the topic, should remain the most common and successful route to create objects, to reject those objects which, although open topic, but are uncomfortable (well, poor visibility, etc. ). Technique requires a logical sequence in the display of objects (ie, their placement on the route), the allocation and use of pauses between objects neutralize distracting stimuli (street noise, extraneous conversations, objects that are not in the subject, etc.). To plot the route to ensure maximum economy of time in the tour group traveling between facilities. It is important to avoid the monotony of demonstrated objects is unacceptable, for example, the whole topic of city sightseeing tour to disclose monumental sculpture.
One of the requirements techniques - Continuity tours as a process of learning, ie the impact of tourists on a tour of the material during the 180 minutes allocated for its implementation (a four thematic tour by bus). Tours of all time (180 minutes) is filled with the sum of the show, the story and the pauses between the sub-themes and key issues of the topic.
Construction of any tour of this scheme improves cognition and educational role of tour material.
Technique requires communication and interaction between the show and the story, in one case providing a combination thereof, in the other - the alternation in the third absence of both.
There are four versions of the show and the story, they are typical for almost every tour. 
The method takes into account the perception of the material. Experience shows that a continuous story is not valid, the tour guide should not speak for the entire tour, at some point, the perception of the material is reduced, then stopped altogether. The method is based on the fact that during the transfers or transitions between objects in minutes, free of the show and the story, tourists have the opportunity to reflect on the heard, compare the observed object previously seen, it is best to learn what they saw and heard, and consolidate the material in memory. This "free" time to fill mental activity of tourists. No less necessary pause the tour guide for a short rest. Pause at each particular tour is planned depending on the route. More pauses happen in country excursions.
The important role played by the proper use of pauses. Do not use the breaks to exchange impressions about the trip, discuss what they saw and heard. Discusses such unjustified, ie they destroy the "fabric" of trips to excite audiences and further reduce the level of understanding of the material.
Compliance with the tour guide technique helps to convey to the audience the knowledge in a form different from the lectures, discussions, oral magazine, theme parties, and to ensure a steady interest in the subject for the entire tour. This is particularly important for that part of the excursion, which takes a lot of space story. Here tourists can appear moments so-called crisis of attention that the listeners of lectures, according to researchers, comes on the 14 th, 25 th, 34 th minute, etc. Excursion recommended technique at a time when attention to the story begins to weaken, to introduce a new object display. When in the course of the show object ceases to attract the attention of the group, the guide can tell an interesting example, some details of the event. Built on this methodological procedure Innovation. If a time comes when the group is near the object to be reduced by 2-3 minutes of being at the bus stop and continue on the route, along with a story. If the attention of tourists during the waning of the bus, you should stop the movement for exploring monuments. If possible, to leave the bus and continue on to the next monument on foot.
Methodology recommends other ways to save and restore the attention of tourists: listening recording, display transparencies or slides, use of visual aids of the "portfolio guide." The method is based excursions given the interest of tourists. It is important to ensure that the interest of tourists to the theme and materials excursions formed before the show and the story. For this purpose, use the foreword guide.
Practice shows that in the first minutes of attention of tourists is provided by their interest in the subject. Then the attention is supported fascinating stories and the qualities of objects, their fame, exotic, educational value. Sustained attention also helps show the correct sequence of objects.
One of the difficulties in developing a method is to show that often close to the object, which is shown on the subject, there is another that is unrelated to the topic, but it is more attractive in appearance. Naturally, such an object striking. From the methodological point of view, the question can be solved in different ways: a) we can give a brief update on the wrong object. For example, say that the building has no historical value, that its construction allowed mixture of architectural styles, and b) keep silent about, and c) so go to the desired object to a foreign object was seen trippers later.
The method uses different means to enhance the attention of tourists: the reference guide to the group with the proposal, an unexpected question, identification of interesting detail in the monument. The efforts of the guide can also be sent to the desired distribution of attention between objects. For example, the display of the architectural ensemble precedes examination city panorama. For each trip should be determined by the time to switch attention from one object to another.
The methodology of the tour, the guide emotion, his gestures and facial expressions, the alignment of the object, the use of sound reinforcement equipment - all of which should be aimed at overcoming the street noise, the maximum possible in urban neutralizing extraneous stimuli. Necessary, as psychologists say, "keep these stimuli in the background of consciousness."
An important requirement of the method consists in the fact that all the main sites and disclosed to them subthemes were combined into a single unit. In addition to the logical sequence of "placement" of objects on the route, a kind of increase in their show, the availability of the punchline (ie, the moment of greatest tension in the opening theme), you must also linking sub-themes, a definite choice of logical transitions. Therefore, the method requires proper organization and use pauses between objects, a certain logic in the presentation content of the main issues tematichnosti inquiries during the transfers between facilities.
Subject to the requirements and procedures based on the story of excursions, is determined by its content, duration, form, link the story with the show. This work has its difficulties. For example, how to approach the methodical preparation of the story after a display object defined? How to start a story and how to develop it? How to organize the monitoring of the object? This depends primarily on the appearance of the object, its degree of preservation, how complete view of their nature, purpose, the events associated with it, he is able to give.
Almost story may be based on one of two positions:
- Tour a (monument, place of event) came to our time in complete safety (ie, without any changes and modifications, loss of parts);
- Tour a not reached us in its original form.
In the first case, the story begins with a description of the event, the disclosure of which is devoted to the sub-theme. In the second case, the story is directed first to the reconstruction of the object, and only then set out the event.
The task of the story - to prepare the tourists to observe the object. The method takes into account the ability of an object to attract attention.