The methodology of the tour aims to help learn the content easier to tourists sightseeing. This is done with the help of techniques, which are divided into two groups - methods and techniques show the story, but the practice requires a more sophisticated classification of techniques: by their purpose, time and place of use, etc. 
The task of techniques - to provide the best method of communication effectiveness tour knowledge audience. Instructional techniques can be viewed in several ways: as the best way to perform a certain action, as a means of turning passive into active surveillance inspection facility trippers, as the basis for the transformation of oral information to the visual cortex, as a basis for analysis and synthesis on trips, etc.
All instructional techniques, the proper use of which is one of the foundations of excellence guide, can be classified by their purpose as follows:
- Methods of direct trips (show and story);
- Techniques aimed at creating the conditions for the effective conduct tours.
Classification of instructional techniques
Instructional techniques are divided into several groups according to their purpose: instructional techniques, whose main task - the tour guide to help establish solid contact between the guide and tourists, techniques, whose task achieve sustained attention of the audience to the observed object, methods, fixing attention to the story, with exciting tourists interest in certain issues, methods, providing vision tour material.
In the classification of methods of excursion into two distinct groups:
Display techniques, which include: techniques, organizing observation (study, research) objects and brings out the subject of the environment, of the whole; techniques, whose task, based on the imagination of tourists, to make visible changes in the appearance of the object; techniques that enable see objects in the right way, built on the move - approaching tour group to the object away from him, moving along it.
Techniques of the story - it's techniques based on the explanation of the object, describing its internal appearance and cause tourists visual associations, and reporting techniques that make it possible to understand the changes in the observed object, etc.
Virtually all instructional techniques can be divided into two categories: the simpler, creating conditions for the excursions and more complex - direct methods of excursion.
Instructional techniques, as mentioned earlier, are divided into: general, apply to all trips, regardless of what is shown and what is the story, and private inherent in one type of excursions (production, museum, natural history), individual techniques used under the supervision of any -or one unique object (eg, Church of the Intercession on the Nerl in summer sunny day, when the building is reflected in the water surface of the adjacent lake). These techniques are generally "finds" a guide and are not used by all who conducts such tours, the techniques used at certain times of the year, day.
When using the guide of techniques must consider the level of the group (for example, learning styles in architecture, monumental sculpture species). Some guides are used in practice all the techniques, others are limited to two or three, and others - do not use instructional techniques. Quality of excursion depends not only on the knowledge of the guide, just as important is the ability to apply it to the tour itinerary studied techniques in all their diversity. Can do it professionally trained guides.
Instructional techniques SHOW
The largest group are shown techniques that simplify the monitoring facility, make it stand out features that are not visible during normal viewing, allow sightseers mentally divide the monument into parts, invent the lost parts, "see" does not exist at the present time the object in its original form , the historical events that took place many years ago.
Reception prior inspection. This technique is used at a time when tourists are on the site of the monument. It represents the first step of observing the object. There are two ways to use the reception. The first begins with the words of the guide: "And this is such a monument, read to him." Thus he invites tourists by an initial observation of the object, to meet with its appearance, to see some details. After that, the guide directs the attention of the group to determine the nature of the object, which gives an opportunity to tourists: a) an idea of ??the historic place where the events took place, and b) to the object in a natural environment, and c) give some evaluation of the object, and d) an idea of its natural environment.
Second use of the reception prior inspection is that the beginning is a brief introduction, the guide, in which he directs a group that is to be seen in the observation of the object, what its quality, and it is recommended to identify the specific characteristics during the observation.
Admission panoramic display allows sightseers to observe (eg, with a panoramic platform of Sparrow Hills in Moscow) type locality. For a panoramic display can be used towers, bell towers, walls, bridges and other high points with panoramic views of the city, the battle-field, valleys and rivers. To enhance the perception of day trippers big picture, which is revealed to them, it is necessary to reveal the panorama composition center and bring it to the attention of the group. Another feature of the panoramic display is that in the field of view of tourists gets a lot of objects. The tour guide to show the objects that reveal the theme, moving from the general to the particular display panoramas.
Reception of visual reconstruction (reconstruction). As mentioned previously, the term "reconstruction" means the restoration of the original form (appearance) of anything on the balance or written sources. The essence of this method lies in the fact that the word is restored by the original appearance of the historic building. Does this guide, based on visual impressions of tourists. This technique is widely used in the show places of memory, which hosted military battles, popular uprisings, strikes, revolutionary May Day, rallies and other events. This includes places associated with the life and activities of public figures, famous writers, scientists, composers and artists. The task of this reception to give to tourists the opportunity to "visually" to restore memorial site, building, structure in their original form, a historical event that happened at that place.
If the building is in ruins (traces of wars, earthquakes, time) to make a visual reconstruction of the tour guide to help survivors of parts and components. If the building is not available, to the aid of visual aids "portfolio guide." Object uses photos, drawings, diagrams, charts, graphic material, characterizing the environment in which the events took place.
The success of the reception of the visual reconstruction depends on the degree to which the guide. Competence it allows not only convincingly tell excursionists on the event, but also to give a visual representation of it.
Admission optic installation is one option methodical technique of reconstruction. Guide, using the technique of visual installation is desired, adding the appearance of several monuments, as well as their individual parts. Parts can be "borrowed" from the objects that are currently the subject of surveillance of tourists. In the visual assembly can be used photos, drawings, paintings.
Admission localization events. Important role in the elaboration of the events is a methodological procedure of localization, that is, link events to a specific place. This technique makes it possible to limit the attention of well-known outside excursions, chain their views in a given area is to the place where the event occurred.
In presenting the material this method provides for a transition from the general to the specific. (For example, efficient use of reception event binding to a point of excursions to industrial themes: "This shop was built the first tractor in the country.")
Acceptance of abstraction is the thought process of a discharge from any part of the purpose of the subsequent in-depth monitoring. This methodical approach allows sightseers to consider the signs of the object (historical and cultural monuments, monumental sculptures), which serve as the basis for the opening theme (sub-themes). Admission is based on the observation of abstraction: a) one of the objects with a mental distraction from other objects that are adjacent in the same area or street, and b) one of the parts of the building (floors, balcony, porch, etc.) in abstraction from the other parts that are less important or need to review the topic. This method gets its name from the term "abstraction", meaning a mental separation, isolation of individual features, properties, connections and relationships specific subject.  Use of this method is preceded explanation guide which parts of the subject, the subject of building yavyatsya display. Abstraction allows excursionists "not see" what is not relevant to this tour.
Reception of visual comparison. In the excursion technique uses different types of comparison: visual, verbal, visual comparison of the perceived object with the object, or mentally reconstructed previously shown to tourists. This technique is based on the visual comparison of different objects or parts of one object to another, which is before the eyes of tourists. In this compared with each other as similar and different in its outward appearance objects.
Using a trick of visual comparison allows sightseers to present actual value of the object (for example, the height of the monument, the length of the walls, the width of the street), can reduce the number of digits in the story, the number of facts and examples are used, the time required for an explanation.
One of the objectives of this methodological procedure - identify the characteristics, features of the object, to show its originality and uniqueness. Summing up "observation" guide describes similarities of the two objects, or are they different from each other.
Reception Integration (restoration,) is built on a combination of individual parts of the observed object together. Using a trick of integration is straightforward, because for each person the knowledge of the world begins with the study of individual objects and facts. Featuring a building, structure, memorable place, the guide goes through integration, ie combining the various parties, details of properties in a single unit.
Effect of instructional techniques of integration in an excursion to the method of synthesis - the connection of separate parts, parts, broken generalization of facts into a coherent whole. For example, the integration technique can be used to show the architectural ensemble. First shows each building individually, then the guide combines (integrates) visual impressions obtained trippers in observation of individual objects. At the final stage of the show is watching a group of ensemble as a unity of several buildings. And guides to draw conclusions, describing the band as a whole.
Reception of visual analogy based on the action of one of the common methods of scientific knowledge - the method of analogy. Admission is based on an analogy comparing a) the item with a photo or drawing or other objects, and b) the observed object with objects that tourists saw earlier. The mechanism of action of this method is that the tour guide "puts" before the day trippers are two objects, only one of which is physically located in front of their eyes. For example, the tour "The Landmarks of Vologda" he offers to compare forward of excursionists belfry of St. Sophia Cathedral with bell tower of Ivan the Great in Moscow, walls Cyril-Belozersky monastery walls of the Moscow Kremlin. They are thicker than the walls of the Moscow Kremlin and created in response to the achievements of the fortification art of his time.
Reception of visual analogy is more complicated than taking the visual comparison. In visual comparison compares two similar each building, structure, monument, plants, memorable places, portrait, who is currently in front of tourists. The task of the guide, using this method when displaying the object - to attract tourists to actively search for analogies, called in-memory representation of the appearance of the same object, which they saw in the previous tours. Thus at each tripper can have your analogy.
Reception of visual analogy is sometimes called the reception of the association. Very often this technique is based on the show association by similarity. Rarely used Association opposites (black - white, cold - heat, light - dark), in order of time, the unity of the location of objects or actions (historical events).
Receiving attention switching. After observing the object at the suggestion of the guide tourists carry their views on another object (for example, moving your eyes from the house, built in the early twentieth century, to the current multi-story building or a transition from seeing the panorama of the city to the observation of nature). The presence of contrast enriched with new experiences. Comparing objects to better understand the original object being observed.
Methodical procedure movement. Should distinguish between two concepts: the "movement" as a sign of tours and the "movement" as a methodological procedure. These are different things.
Stir in the tour as a methodological procedure is a movement of tourists near the facility to better his observations (eg, inspection, walls, movement of tourists along the conveyor at the plant, etc.). In some cases the movement of a group is used to tourists got an steepness mountain height of the tower (the bell tower, the minaret), the depth of the ditch, a distance of the object, etc. In addition, the movement of the tours is used as a methodological procedure show tour facilities of individual buildings, structures, streets, architectural ensembles, area. In some cases the use of slow motion on the bus around the complex objects. During this movement set of observed objects in front of tourists as it rotates, revealing new objects.
Sometimes the movement of pedestrian groups organized with the panorama show, for example, can lead the tour group movement along the observation deck on the Sparrow Hills, opposite the tall building of Moscow State University. Lomonosov etc. This methodological procedure provides an opportunity to show a multi-faceted panorama can detect frequency components, the similarity of objects, their differences, peculiarities.
Another variant of movement as a methodological procedure - going around the buildings, monuments. Traffic around a residential area helps to identify the advantage of the new city development, to show the rationality of the location of buildings - residential, municipal, cultural, educational, etc., to identify their functional features. The third option - to move the monument. Methodologically, it is so constructed that during the movement of the bus or on foot, the object is starting to emerge more and more distinct, emerging and increasing in size in front of tourists. This allows the tour guide to identify features of an object, drawing them to the attention of, to bring tourists to the necessary conclusions.
The most effective is the use of taking traffic in the cases where the authors of the tour, participants should feel the dynamics of a particular event. The tour guide during the show (for example, the field where the battle took place) offers participants themselves make their way to be followed by the characters of the event. With this method, in particular, to show the Brest fortress or Malakhov Kurgan in Volgograd, memorial sites, where guerrilla groups operated in Belarus. Such a move (walk) allows you to experience the distance, the size of the ancient city, inverse field.