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Table of contents


Kinds of tourism

Excursion (author BV Emelyanov)

introduction

1. Fundamentals Excursion

2. guided technique

3. Professional skills guide

 3.1. The tour guide, a profession
 3.2. Personality guide
 3.3. Ekskursovodcheskoe skill
 3.4. Skills guide
 3.5. This guide
 3.6. Vnerechevye communication
Tunisia (author Danielle shetar Friedrich chum)

In the Sikhote-Alin (author VK Arseniev)

Michail bulgakov. the heart of a dog

Mikhail bulgakov. the master and margarita

Charlotte bronte. jane eyre

F. scott fitzgerald / the great gatsby

Jerome klapka jerome / three men in a boat


 Home
     3. Professional skills guide
          3.5. This guide

This guide

Perception excursion theme built on a sound and visual range. The source of the sound of the series is a tour guide his speech. In relation to the excursionists he can play from the position of:

- Informant who reported knowledge of a group of people talking about an event, a phenomenon, not showing him his attitude, without explaining its nature, cause and effect relationships with other events and phenomena;

- Commentator who, reporting on the observed objects, events and phenomena, provides an explanation, calling the reasons that caused them;

- Companion. Featuring objects, the guide serves as a companion. Is interested in the conversation, during which the reaction of tourists accounted for the material presented, using question-answer form of presentation of information. The tour guide at the audience reaction, their questions and replies may introduce additional story material;

- Counselor. The guide explains what he saw and gives advice on how to observe the object, ie brings tourists to the necessary conclusions;

- Emotional leader who analyzes objects and events connected with them, evaluate the issues at hand, reports excursionists their conviction helps explain the observed objects and phenomena.

During the tour, the following five forms of public speaking:

1) the word or speech, a short oral presentation on a topic;

2) report, public speaking on a particular topic, contains analytical material subject to further discussion;

3) Abstract - brief summary of the issue based on scientific data, literature review and analysis, archival and other sources;

4) Lecture - oral public statement, which details any topic;

5) small forms of speech - Replica (consent, object, note), the response to the speech of the speaker, help during performances, a rhetorical question, a direct answer to the question.

Any well-trained and an excursion is a synthesis of forms of oratory.

Language and speech. It is important not to confuse the concept of "language" and "speech", which are closely related.

Language - is the existing capability, which appears under certain conditions: the knowledge of phonetic, lexical, grammatical rules, the ability to think and speak, to reach an understanding with other people. Language is a specific social means of storing and transmitting information, and control human behavior. [59]

Speech - implementation language features, a form of communication between people, "concrete speaking," takes place in time and conviction in the sound (including internal pronunciation) or in writing. [60]

Harnessing the power of language in speech allows the tour guide clearly express a certain body of knowledge on the subject. Intelligibility of speech and expression to its accuracy depends on a number of factors - the right choice of words, phrases, and other construction

It is divided into external and internal. External speech has a communicative function, the content is focused on the understanding of other people. Story of the guide - the sample of external speech, the problem is to work on the mind and the actual behavior of people, give them some information on individual objects and to ensure that this information was correct reflection in the minds of tourists. Transfer of knowledge and reflection of reality - the two main functions of language. The first function of language in the tour - a message of knowledge, verbal expression of feelings in the course of communication with the audience. Message on any topic is divided into two parts: a) the name of the objects of the parts of historical events, natural phenomena, individual actions of people, ie their verbal designation, b) a statement of judgment on their nature, value, relationship to other objects, events, actions.

Inner speech - is it to himself, the preliminary formulation of ideas, which will be communicated to the audience. Man, thinking about any subject, talking to himself in the internal (hidden) dialog. With inner speech is thinking, it uses such aids as charts, images and tables. Inner speech is based on the person's knowledge, obtained earlier. To guide the inner speech is a form of mental pronunciation of all content excursions or part thereof.

Each guide has a full use of the internal speech, which in essence is the communion of man with himself, for the formulation and solution of a cognitive task. If the external speech is a statement ready, logical, well-formulated thoughts, inner speech - a preparatory stage in which, in a conversation with yourself in the mind of man is born and refine these ideas.

The guide in the tour uses both forms of speech - speech precedes internal external, and sightseer, digestible message guide, while only using inner speech. This helps to better understand and remember the knowledge, agree with the conclusions guide, his point of view. This is sometimes referred to as the situation in the tour of instructional techniques hidden dialogue that allows sightseers, without entering into open verbal discussion, to make the right conclusion expounded material.

Style of language - a kind of language. For example, the language of the people in the home is different from the language in the official sector, scientific abstracts language different from the language teachers in secondary schools. Distinguish between styles of language: art, business, conversational everyday (everyday), scientific, journalistic, vocational.

Language style guide is a manner of verbal expression of thoughts, speech construction. From other styles to its different forms and techniques of narrative features such as conciseness, accuracy, consistency, imagery, expression, emotion, clarity, richness of language.

Personal style guide describes the language level of professional skills, speech culture. The style guide's language depends on its purpose: a) to reconstruct a picture of the outside of a historical event, and b) provide a comprehensive description of the observed object, describing events, natural phenomena, and c) to make tourists feel distant historical setting time.

In a speech to guide the use of unacceptable standard phrases and words, the meaning of which has long been erased, "so to speak", "mean", "short." Importance and nuances of speech. Her tone, for example, should be slightly elevated during the entire tour.

The nature of the story changes depending on the tasks. The story may be of a narrative or reconstructive in nature. Story - a story about an event, a description of the course. The narrator gives listeners an idea of ??where and how the events occurred. The narrative style of presentation is typical for most excursions.

Reconstructive story aims to recover before the mind's eye of the audience or that item in its original form (for example, the building does not come down to our time.) Guide the process of perception, the guide recommends excursionists to see and play in your mind a picture of them painted.

Of speech. Cultural believe it, characterized by rich vocabulary, extensive use of grammatical constructions, artistic expression and logical reasoning, expediency gestures and facial expressions. Professor Vladimir Artemov in his book "The Culture of speech" (New York: Speak, 1966) includes the concept of culture is the pronunciation, grammar and syntax of the language forms and stylistic culture speech.

The concept of "speech" refers to speech spoken and written language. She and the other it must be meaningful, understandable, meaningful and effective. Culture of writing guide is expressed in documents such as the control and the individual texts, methodical development, report, lecture, review, bibliographic image.

Control text excursion sets the standard language, and the individual - the language close to the spoken language. Culture of speech is seen as a combination of three components: the language of speech, psychology of speech, speech communication culture.

Language speech combines concepts: culture dictionary culture of grammatical forms and syntax language, culture pronunciation (sounds, words, intonations), style of speech, gestures and facial expressions culture.

Psychological concepts of speech includes: content, clarity, grammatical and stylistic expression, the effect of speech (requirements, recommendations, job board, please, prohibition, rebuke, warning). The psychological effect of speech based instructional techniques of guided tours.

Communicative speech in pursuit of establishing contacts and relationships with the audience, including such things as a tour guide - a source of information, story of the guide - a system of genuine messages. Communication skills of speech include: correct speech (compliance with the standard language, accents and grammar), the accuracy of speech, which is "composed according to the content of the speech range of objects and phenomena of reality that speech displays" [61], the logic of speech, consisting according ties speech relations of objects and phenomena in the real world, purity of speech, in which there are no elements that are alien to the literary language, and no language elements, rejected the norms of morality [62], the expressiveness of speech (its features, generated interest tourists and strengthen attention to expound material); wealth speech (saturation its various means of language) the appropriateness of speech (matching its theme, content, purpose and objectives of tours and tour group).

The pace and rhythm of speech guide dictated the content of the story. They change for excursions - accelerated or slowed down. Distinguish speech tempo fast, medium, slow, smooth and jerky. Rate of speech should be calm and measured, so that the content of the speech effectively perceived.

In the preparation of specific themes, developing story of the guide should be performed independent study with a clock in his hands. The rapid pace of speech - 75 words per minute, average - 60 words, slow - 45 words. Tongue Twister (80 or more words per minute) is not valid, it interferes with the absorption of the material at the tour, quickly tiring the audience. Rapid rate of speech, devoid of pauses, not perceived trippers. At the same time is not allowed the same pace throughout the tour, as it makes it boring and inexpressive.

In a speech to the guide outlines the main points slower than the rest of the material. The material, which develops the basic provisions set out in quick time.

The disadvantages include speech overuse of technical terms, foreign words, cliches, clerical speed, long sentences, as it irritates the audience, dispels their attention.

To guide important to have good diction - crisp, clear pronunciation of syllables, words and whole sentences. The disadvantages are a lisp speech, twang, lethargy pronunciation nedogovarivanie endings of phrases and words.

Work on the language of the tour starts with mastering the technique of speech (breath, voice, diction). It is important that the diction (way to pronounce sounds and words in the speech) was clear and distinct. First of all it is necessary to eliminate confusion, slurred speech, to work out the pronunciation of words that are not easily perceived by tourists. Then draws attention to the slowness of haste or pronunciation. Every word, including the words of foreign origin, as well as first and middle names should sound clear, it is understandable for sightseers.

The guide should watch his speech, intonation, ie Shifting up and down vote on the pronunciation of words and sentences. Speech intonation must be logically justified, since the stories is not only thought, but also a feeling. It gives the color of the story, is the ratio of the guide to the content of the material.

There is another purpose of intonation in the story - efforts to complete a thought. It serves to emphasize the importance of the fact, to give the story of the solemnity, the unexpected, the nature of the question and so on Changing the tone of the story is called semantic content, so the ability to guide pronounce certain words and whole phrases with different shades of intonation is important.

Master of the spoken word IL Andronnikov argues that the range of intonation can be considered infinite. It would not be wrong to say that the true meaning of what is not in the words but in the tones with which they are uttered. Intonation of individual proposals may be interrogative, exclamatory, affirmative, narrative. The tone of the story can be happy, sad, solemn, depending on what the guide tells and how it relates to this. Emotional coloring of the story has to be justified, therefore, in preparation for the trip should determine the intonation and tone of the upcoming story.

The guide should possess all kinds of stress - verbal, phrase, logical. In itself, the emphasis is highlighted word or group of words power to vote or rising tone. Logical stress - identifying the most important point in the speech. Such an emphasis is placed on those words that should capture the attention of tourists, make them think, to come to a conclusion.

It is important to work out the logic and phrasal stress in the story. Each phrase is usually provided one or more words of which is meaningful (phrase) accent. When the logical stress in the phrase stands for a word or words, the most important in terms of content. Tour guide should not be mechanically memorizing the wording and difficult words in the text. Need to get used to them, understand them, and only then to remember. Importantly to ensure that their use in the speech was a natural and necessary. In cases when it is impossible to achieve this, some words can be replaced by other, more usual for this guide, for more natural style of his speech.

The tone of the speech emphasized the importance of the event, attracts the attention of tourists, helping them to make the right conclusions. Elation, the solemnity of the story, subject to a sense of proportion in some part of it is quite natural. Must be avoided in the story as monotony, lethargy, and excessive elation, undue emotion, false pathos, loud.

Continued work on the development of speech enriches vocabulary guide, it can correctly select and use the words in the story, helping to get rid of weeds speech unnecessary words, standard phrases, as well as from the use of a large number of foreign words, allows the tour guide to develop your own style of language.

Conclusions.

Tour guide is necessary to understand the meaning of language and speech, their relationship. This guide is focused efforts on the implementation of the language features. The success of this approach depends on what kind of attention to guide the improvement of his speech skills. Importantly - constant practice. For a guide - it is the assimilation of different forms of speech animation to another - the struggle with the words-parasites, for the third detection and elimination of errors in language, for many - the elimination of tautologies in the speech.

The errors in the language guide explains inattention to his speech. Usually notice them tourists. Examples of these errors: "We live in a great time too", "works of the composer raises numerous interesting", "hung over the crowd roar doubt."

No less impoverished speech tautology (repetition of the same in other words): the use of the same or similar in the sense of the words (in their entirety, as clear as truth), overlapping judgments. Way to overcome the tautology - the search for similar words and expressions in reference books, encyclopedias, dictionaries.

Test questions:

1. Of speech, its characteristics.

2. Types of speech - external and internal.

3. Language style guide.

4. Speech technology guide. Diction.

5. Of speech. Wealth of vocabulary. Figurative language.

6. Forming mastery of speech.

7. Speech etiquette. Its requirements and regulations.


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