Every profession is a kind of work that requires a certain knowledge of human and labor skills. Acquired the knowledge and skills through the general or special education, and in the daily practice of the employee.
Until the 1960s, working as a tour guide was professional, it was a kind of recreational activities for groups of enthusiasts. Guide duties performed by experts of various disciplines on the job their main activities (teachers, researchers museums, institutes, etc.). Only a few travel agencies and in some museums were established guides. However, while this work is beginning to take on professional traits.
The emergence of a new profession due to measures taken by policy-makers in 1969 to promote tourism and tour business in the country. Changing functions of excursions, their transformation from recreation in the form of cultural and educational work in the workforce, the community and working with tourists, a major branch of public service to strengthen the role of guides, the further formation of a new specialty. The guide, which in 1940 was designated as the head of tours, museums - the employee showing excursionists on view objects, and giving the necessary explanations, in the 1970s, became one of those who have been entrusted to carry knowledge to people, was seen as the guide of the teacher and educator. Guides were called workers travel and tours, public and departmental museums, permanent exhibitions, art galleries, organizations, "Sputnik", "Intourist", the Ministry of Education to give tours showing monuments, points of interest, museum. The title of "guide" is given to employees these organizations that have appropriate education, trained in special courses or self-fulfilled all the requirements for persons who have completed a training course guides. Requirements for tour guide defined "Job Description guide tourist-excursion organization," approved in 1977, the beginning of the 1990s to tour agencies to work or worked for the rights of part-time over 70,000 guides. The tour guide was a central figure at the tour business.
Process of becoming a professional guide is complex and multifaceted, it is necessary to distinguish four stages.
Requirements of the profession. To those who have chosen this profession guide, it imposes a number of requirements. Among them: the inclination to participate in cultural and educational work, understanding the meaning of tours and their role in education, awareness of his duty, having a good diction, some knowledge in one or more tour themes; intolerance of shortcomings, lack of culture, vestiges of the past in the minds and human behavior, the continuous updating and improvement of their knowledge, a sense of a new, initiative and creativity in the work, in-depth study of interests and needs of tourists, a differentiated approach to the maintenance of various groups; manners, the highest standards in work and behavior, politeness, tact in dealing with the trippers, possession technique excursions, love for their profession.
Each guide must have a knowledge of not only the specialty, but also knowledge of the basics of pedagogy and psychology. It is also important to guide, to analyze his work, he was able to make an objective assessment of excursion, showed integrity and demanding of themselves.
Job guide assumes ownership of a certain range of practical skills. These skills allow him to select, define and effectively communicate their knowledge to a wider audience. Every employee who has chosen profession guide, should be able to: find the necessary factual material, study it and prepare individual text trips on a certain topic, make a methodical development, instructional techniques to apply in practice, use visual aids "portfolio guide," listen to the guides in their field of expertise and help them to participate in the promotion of sightseeing opportunities edge.
Practical knowledge and skills are the basis for the participation of the guide in methodical work, you can manage the methodology section, the methodical study, to teach in training and professional development guides, managers of tourist groups, travel agencies, tour guides to help beginners. Possession of practical knowledge and skills is a solid foundation of skill guide.
Trades and specialties
A major focus of the professional development guides is specialization. First, you must define the content and relations between the two terms that are often confused - "profession" and "special."
Profession - a form of work that requires a certain amount of knowledge and skills. Specialty - kind of employment within a profession. For example, the profession - a doctor, a specialty doctor - physician, surgeon, neurologist, dentist, etc. Profession - the main occupation, the term "specialist" indicates the degree of mastery of knowledge and skills within a particular profession. Otherwise, the expert - is an employee who holds a professional specialty.
The task of the preparation of new guides: do specialists professional guides, ie help to those skilled master the required amount of knowledge and skills profession guide. Need to organize the business to come to the tour agency worker is not only preserved, but also continued to improve the profession, ie strengthened that basis, which allows it to carry out the activities of the excursion. Teacher and historian, became a guide, it is best to have led trips to historical themes. It would be wrong to oblige him to develop natural history tour of the topic. Preparation of such trips require special knowledge of expert biologists.
At the tour agencies and public museums specialty principle was widely developed. On its basis, the thematic sections of guides: historical, natural history, production, etc. The work guides professionals on the routes is highly appreciated by tourists.
All workers who come to tour the institution after the course or self-study can be divided into several groups. Some give tours on one or two topics, prepared during the study, they did not seek to expand the subjects themselves conducted tours. The second group of guides characterized the first years of searching for his main theme, which usually does not extend beyond their specialty. After selecting a topic, they give their power to improve it, improve professional skills. The third group of guides - those who undertake any topic, and after five or six years of age have to their credit a dozen dissimilar in content excursion themes. Tours are conducted by them, as a rule, on average.
Image of the profession - the respect that it enjoys. Profession guide prestige that is associated with attractiveness, originality of this kind of work, and the uniqueness of an intellectual nature. Social prestige of the profession is based on the appreciation of the importance of the guide, the understanding of its role in the cultural and educational work. The youth, which aims to become tour guides, decisive in the choice of this profession is the ability to communicate with others, be the object of attention of the interested audience to receive the daily assessment of its activities, causing positive emotions of tourists.
Professional skills guide and prestige of the profession - the interrelated concepts. However, it should be borne in mind that the moral prestige of the guide does not automatically on the personality of each individual guide. The very image of personality routinely checked and confirmed by guide practitioners in the team, in the workplace, especially on the route - a group where there is a demonstration of the main auditorium and the concrete, which is the indispensable basis of professional prestige.
In the 1970s, in the states of excursion institutions and museums appeared workers formalized a permanent job to prepare and conduct tours. These were professionals who, unlike his predecessors, not to conduct tours in their spare time, and in the performance of his duties in the main job. For them, the trip were not "hobby" or a means of earning extra money. Tour was the subject of their work.
However, in many institutions sightseeing tours conducted by specialists working in other organizations and institutions. They are invited for individual tours. Ekskursovodcheskoe thing for these people to become second profession. That's when the Council on tourism and excursions, travel and tours there a training course guides. Many of these courses were fixed and lasted nearly 20 years. Their activities are detailed in the training manuals (Emelyanov B. Organization of refresher courses and training guides (tourist-excursion workers). M., 1989). Important role in the training and retraining of workers have played a central tourist courses, after ten years of existence transformed into the Institute of Advanced Training of tourist and excursion organizations (currently the Russian International Academy of Tourism), courses at the "Intourist" and "satellite".