Man as harmoniously developed personality combines spiritual wealth, moral purity, and physical perfection. Each person is different. These three features:
1. Stability of personality traits.
2. The unity of the person as a unity of certain properties and qualities.
3. Activity of the individual, which is reflected in the multilateral activities.
Moral demands of the individual - respect the general principles and rules of conduct, adherence to certain ideals.
Key personality traits: intelligence - the ability to make a reasonable, meaningful action, responsibility - the understanding of the results of their actions, personal dignity - the behavior associated with the protection of their rights, personality - the originality, personality, set of features that distinguish the person from others.
Active life - a way to participate in the activities of human society. Human life position is reflected in its relation to society, labor, public and private property, other people and to yourself. In assessing the degree of activity of the person is considered a vital position not isolated incidents, but a set of all possible types of activity: social, labor, moral, ideological and educational.
Sociologists study and daily practice shows that there are different levels of activity vital position of people: high, medium and low. The level of the active position is dependent on the formation of individual opinions, parenting philosophy and belief, develop professional skills. Activity level position in life depends on the quality of a particular individual, his aspirations and desires and the ability to carry out a particular job.
Educational process aimed at the establishment of the inner world of the individual, the formation of the qualities that are the basis of an active life position: faithfulness to duty, high responsibility for their work, teamwork, unity of word and deed.
The guide, by reason of his profession, delivered in an environment conducive to the manifestation of an active life position. Its mission - to make full use of these conditions for their daily activities.
In the activities of the guide there are the three levels of attitudes. High level position in life is characterized by social activity, creative activity, a good job, a sense of moral responsibility. Medium or low activity life position the employee does not allow him to conduct qualitative excursion work. Here's how these levels are characterized by: a vital position intermediate level is one-sided, does not go beyond the regulatory tasks - the "from" and "to". Life position is characterized by a low level of activity and passivity, the inexperience of the person, the lack of knowledge, skills, and abilities.
In addition to the three levels of the individual active life position, there are others: passive and negative attitude. Passive attitude to life is based on the life of failures and breakdowns in the work of moral instability. The negative attitude to life deal of activity in the interests of the collective and the individual, careerism, biased criticism, violation of labor and production discipline, immoral behavior.
Development of instincts and abilities of the individual. A large role in shaping the personality of the guide play makings.
Makings - congenital anatomical and physiological features of the nervous system, the brain. The makings are a natural basis of human ability.
The continuous development of the deposits is one of the important pillars of the professional development guide. The makings of any person - memory, observation, imagination, intelligence - in their development can be the basis exceptional abilities. Characteristically, on the basis of the same instincts, depending on the chosen activity, may develop different abilities - teacher, lecturer, and tour guide. It should be borne in mind that the same person may have developed skills that are characteristic of several similar occupations. For example, everyone should have the ability to guide a practitioner. It is no accident as well: most of the Methodist tour agencies are good guides.
In the guide under the influence of practice formed special abilities. Is defined as the individual characteristics of the person, are the subjective conditions for the successful implementation of a certain kind of activity. They are found in the speed, depth and strength of mastering the methods and techniques of any activity.
Person's ability to fall into two groups: general and special. General skills necessary to master all the activities (mental activity, diligence, observation, perseverance, quick orientation, focused attention). Special abilities are the basis for learning skills and abilities specific profession, are achieving good results in any particular area of ??activity. This features - music, literary, artistic, mathematical, technical, etc.
All that is positively characterized the guide (knowledge, skills), primarily based on its ability to carry out its mandated task. No matter what it was - the development of a new theme, preparing the abstract, reading lectures in courses listening tour route, selection of techniques - Methodist and head of the methodological section based on the fact whether the tour will be able to do the job quality, ie . take into account the presence of his specific skills that are needed for this. Important part of the guide - the preparation and conduct regular tours.
Preparing tour is divided into three parts:
1. The repetition of the individual text.
2. Recall requirements methodologies.
3. Brush-up route.
Finalized the self-assessment, in which the guide asks a few control questions: How to start a story at the monument? How, for example, would sound logical progression from sub "Theater of Life" to the sub-theme "Playing basketball all"? How best to use the visual reconstruction of the disclosure sub "City in the days of the Nazi occupation"?
Regardless of how the guide learned subject, he prepared for it every time. The success of the training depends on the abilities of the guide, ie individual personality traits (speed and discipline in carrying out all the necessary operations.) The concept of "training" includes psychological training - to strengthen confidence in the fact that the next tour will be held at a high enough level that tourists will be pleased by what he saw and heard.
For a guide as well as for the teacher, characterized by four types of skills: design, organizational, communication and analytical.
Constructive abilities are expressed in the ability to select and correctly arrange sightseeing stuff, clearly and convincingly present it, and if necessary, restructure plan for trips, usage pattern of instructional techniques. This type of ability is the basis of mental activity guide.
Organizational skills are expressed in the ability to manage the tour group to direct the attention of tourists to the necessary facilities, and the ability to implement the program of tourists and sightseers who came from out of town.
Communication skills are expressed in the ability to establish a business relationship with a group, keep them for the duration of contact with tourists, to properly build relationships with the bus driver on the route, museum, exhibition, tourists who visit, with the Methodists bureau director methodological section, other guides, leaders tourist groups, organized trips and excursions.
Analytical skills are the basis for self-critical analysis of his work, an objective assessment of the quality of the excursions, effective use of instructional techniques. Not all guides are equally owned by the named abilities.
An important role in developing capacities guide play the courses, work in the methodological section, self-employed about objects profound assimilation methods and techniques of conducting tours.
Bias guide. Essential quality of the guide as a person is a conviction. During the tour, the guide presentation topic should show bias: clear and directed to formulate thoughts, right from the standpoint of science to disclose events and phenomena, to persevere in their interpretation. Bias guide - this is a clear direction in his views and actions, the desire to bring their views to the tourists not only to bring, but also to convince them that it is accurate. It helps to tourists to see what he sees himself, strongly directs their attention to the side of events and phenomena, which should be reflected in their minds. An important role is played conviction guide. It is based on his knowledge, ideology and active lifestyle. His belief - is a firm belief in the truth of the reported knowledge, confidence in their interpretation and fidelity of his chosen route to the goal.
The role of temperament guide in conducting tours. Conductivity excursions, its characteristics depend on the temperament of the guide, which is manifested in his behavior and is characterized by a greater or lesser degree, feelings, experiences of duration, stability and rapid change of emotions. Depending on the type of temperament (sanguine, choleric, phlegmatic, melancholic), its behavior is characterized by a certain depth of emotions: excitement or hot temper, calm response to various stimuli.
Manifestation of temperament is the result of the general culture of the person whose behavior can and should be subject to his will, and depends on the ability to control your emotions. This is important in the relationship with day trippers during the tour. Emotion in him under the influence of external and internal stimuli, his bad mood (excessive elation or depression) should not influence the course of tour. The ability to pull themselves together, to provide the desired tone of the group is an important part ekskursovodcheskogo skill.
Important place in the educational work of the methodological section, professional development courses, in independent work must take guide the formation of the necessary qualities to overcome those traits that interfere with the right to organize the day trippers. Work to improve the professional skills of guides should take into account the features of a particular temperament. To guide-sanguine, for example, is characterized by a fast rate of speech, frequent mood changes, fast response to the actions of tourists. Choleric in the absence of proper control unstable, hot-tempered, easily offended, impatient in the story. Phlegmatic, conversely, slow, low sociable, has a monotonous gestures and facial expressions. Characterized by melancholy isolation, insufficient activity, lethargy movements.
Each Guide is necessary to have a clear idea of ??the types of temperament, its manifestations, the nature and character of the emotions, the source of their birth, their role in shaping the beliefs of the tourists. Understanding this allows him to arouse his audience emotions, affecting the efficiency of the perception of the tour material. Just as a playwright and director take care of the audience to always remain trapped development activities, and organizers of the trip should always take care to have tourists during the tour, the continued interest and emotional lift.
Emotions and feelings guide must be objective. The guide seeks to become a kind of tourists emotions of empathy, personal involvement in the events that are shown and characterized in the opening theme.
The highest level of perception of the tour of the material is achieved in cases where empathy is something common in the emotions of tourists. Often, the guide found that in a group, heterogeneous in composition, not all the participants of the excursion will be the same response to the same message. This is because that the resulting emotions are dependent on the individual characteristics of people, such as temperament, their mood, interest in the topic, the motives that moved them to take a hike.
Depending on the topic tour guide must consider the level of general education of the people and their aesthetic development. The emergence of emotions in sightseers hurt excessive explanation of the material and trying to simplify it. Facilitating the mental activity of their students, the guide loses contact with them, thus ruining the subject. Simple stuff, battered examples of lack of novelty in the reported knowledge does not cause any emotion even when trying to guide their own personal emotions save the situation.
Level of excursion, efficiency perception of the material depends on the day trippers mental state of the individual, which is to increase or decrease the activity (attention, emotion, will) and is directly related to the specific conditions of life and work in a team climate, health, atmospheric processes ( weather, pressure, etc.).
There are several types of mental state of the individual - the general state of mind and emotional state (mood), intelligent creative condition, volitional state (ready for action). To be successful it is important to ensure the necessary trips mental state of the individual guide. When you access the guide for the audience as well as a state of unacceptable weakness, uncertainty and nervousness, irritability, tension in his voice, facial expressions, gestures. The tone of the story is to be confident, persuasive, to get involved.
Perception of the material on trips based on a combination of three types of mental processes: cognitive (feeling, idea, thought, imagination), emotional (feelings), volitional (efforts to maintain attention, memory, etc.). These mental processes are closely linked and determined by properties of the individual, her mental state, as well as external influences to which it is exposed to at the moment.
Personality traits are a major regulator of human mental activity. Personality traits and mental processes are grouped according to the same criteria: intellectual (observation, flexibility of mind), emotional (sensitivity, tenderness, passion, efficiency), volitional (perseverance, determination, self-control). All of these properties are combined in a certain way and, based on a person's character is formed.
The guide can not be lenient with himself, his work, relationships with people, and their own behavior. He should not forgive myself badly excursions, any derogation from the requirements of technique. The guide always in control of himself, his actions. For example, during the trip, he asks himself: "So if I do this? Well I run to? Is there enough convincing talk about it? "After a tour and parted with the group, he implicitly asks himself," Will it? Whether all the requirements have been met the tour? "
In training and professional development in teaching sessions and daily work with guides to inculcate the skills of self-control, that is, ability to organize self-regulation of behavior, his motives and intentions.
Self-control, being inside of the activity of the individual, combines these steps in its actions as self-reflection, self-criticism and self-restraint in their behavior. Self-control, consistency and effectiveness of its actions depend on the development of personality traits, as a worldview, ideological conviction, consciousness and culture.
Self-assessment guide progress is a comparison of their activities and the labor process itself with certain standards established by the regulations, provisions, methodological development and other policy documents.