Tour business - an important section of cultural and educational work among the population. Tour the case - more than a hundred years, but it was the most intense development in the 1970s and 1980s of the last century. This is evidenced by: the annual participation in excursions half a billion people, tens of thousands of those excursions, seventy thousandth army guides, and thousands of organizations, to actively conduct excursion work, the development of the theory and methodology of the tour business.
The years since the transition of leadership from the offices of the Ministry of Culture to the unions - the Central Council for Tourism and Excursions (TSSTE) Trade Unions and its institutions in the field. Important role played by the creation of nearly a thousand travel and tours, travel agencies in the cities, the workers and the resort areas of the country.
Development of tour business necessitated the development of methodological and theoretical foundations. The leading role was played by management TSSTE main tour and the Institute for Advanced Training of tourist and excursion organization (now the Russian International Academy of Tourism).
After twenty years of work, and attended excursion Department named institution specified the functions, features and aspects of the tour, the nature and characteristics of two major elements - the show and the story - a tour of the method, developed classification excursions and differentiated approach to the excursion service population; Fundamentals methodologies and techniques, elements of the excursion of pedagogy and psychology, as well as identify the component parts of the case and the tour features professional skill guide.
The emergence of the excursion theory - the result of active cognitive activity in the field, generalization of the practice of tens of thousands of guides and instructors. The theory appears to us as a set of attitudes, views, and ideas that are the basis of modern tour business.
By the late 1970's of the XX century. Three major parts of the tour business: theory, methodology, practice. Presenting a set of generalized provisions excursion theory creates the preconditions for the emergence of a new science - Excursion, which fell in line with science, such as local history, museology, klubovedenie and Bibliology.
Basis Excursion - excursion theory that defines the essence of excursions, formulates laws and features guided tours (an important form of training and education of the person).
Guided technique, as part of Tourism guide, appears to us as a set of clear rules and requirements for the tour, as the amount of techniques of preparation and conducting tours. One of the main objectives of the excursion technique: help to tourists to see, hear and experience the visual and verbal materials.
The subject of the excursion techniques - focused study, classification, formulation and application in practice of methods and means of training and education, as well as instructional techniques to help excursion workers operate.
Equally important to the development of a tour of the case was reflected problems excursion techniques in special editions. This technique, mainly its section "Excursions" in past years was adopted by all organizations over a long period were sightseeing job (BMMT "Sputnik", "Intourist", Central Children's tourist-excursion station, excursion Department of the Ministry of Defense, State Museums, Exhibition (now All-Russian Exhibition Centre). Unfortunately, in recent years the situation has changed, but is still in Russia, there are hundreds of tourist and excursion organizations and conducted thousands of tours.