The combination of the show and the story in the excursion
Each tour is based on a combination of two main elements - the show tour facilities and talking about them.
Show and a story on the tour are not the same for all values ??of and the excursions. The ratio of the story and the show can and should be changed. Display objects on the same tour is different from the show to another on the same subject and time spent on it, and on how to conduct. Similar changes occur with the story. It can be more or less detailed, more or less imaginative.
The main reasons for these differences - changing content excursions according to: the features audience the topic of security objects, the nature of demonstrated objects degree of safety, the amount of factual material available to the tour guide, monitor and understand the complexities of objects trippers.
Tour for more than a century of its existence, the path changed, enriched, especially in the techniques of reference. In this case, the ratio remained unchanged its main elements.
Process of becoming a tour can be seen when considering the elements comprising it - the show (P) and the story (P). Here we should distinguish five levels at which the growth of the role of the show, his nomination to the first and a leading position in the opening theme, in the perception of the material trippers. Placed beneath the scheme is based on an analysis of bus trips, so the recommended judgments can not be fully attributed to the walking tours.
The first level - the simplest tour when the show almost none. Going examination of the objects, which in the form of visual fragments accompanying story of the guide. At this level are widely used visual aids of the "portfolio guide." Such a level of familiarity with objects and historical sites characteristic track excursion information. Guided technique is not used.
At the second level, dominates the story, which is the nature of the lecture, visualization is used to a small extent. The guide illustrates his presentation of visual aids to facilitate disclosure topic - reproductions of paintings, drawings, herbarium, etc.
Showing subordinated story and used as illustrations, reinforcing nominated position. The story in its significance and impact on the audience a great show, the guide uses instructional techniques story.
The third level - a combination of elements excursions, when the story is obligatory. At this level significantly increases the proportion of subject visibility (display objects). Guided process deepens: tour starts using elements of the show, call the value and impact on tourists and the show, and the story. Changing role of the participants of the excursion: now they are not only students, but also the audience. This enhances the perception of the tour material and activates the role of tour guide. With the guidance he has provided leadership group, observation of objects activates trippers.
At this stage of the formation of tours is a division of objects on the primary and secondary, are indicated outputs of the bus for direct acquaintance with objects. An attempt to create a permanent text story, which is still called by different names: synopsis, a detailed plan of presentation, abstracts, etc. Allocated sub-themes. Beginning to use some of instructional techniques show. Selected logical transitions (verbal bridges) between the sub-themes, which are revealed at the sites.
Fourth level. The combination of the show and the story becomes more sightseeing in nature. Showing is a leader in the tour, the story - is secondary. Active use of instructional techniques and show the story, as well as certain types of excursion analysis. Logical transitions become verbal-visual bridges between subtopics. Tour becomes one. Become more active tourists, they are deeper study of history and culture, places of interest.
The introduction and conclusion are independent parts excursion place exhibits fill missing links "portfolio guide." The event is a guided tour.
Level Five. Obtain the optimum combination of the show and the story. The show, an increase in the volume occupied a dominant position, completely subjugating story. Important role in the story is the analysis of visual objects. The story is told in excursion forms: in the form of a comment, information, explanation, introduction, to show objects or after the conclusion of the show. Methods and techniques of excursion reach perfection as using different types of excursion analysis. The greatest activity reaches technique display objects. The role of the guide in guiding the perception of the material.
Practically there is a transformation into a whole show and the story, when they begin to interact in some way dispensed, merge, where one item can not be replaced by another. Moreover, a composite element (story) can not exist without the other (the show), they both are interdependent and complement each other and create something coherent - excursion. Briefly, this can be formulated as follows: a guided tour - the golden mean, which can achieve a good mix between the objects and show them the story of the events associated with them.
Practice shows that the achieved Methodists and guides in some cases easily lost. It should reduce attention to the quality of the tour, as soon as is changing the relationship between the show and the story is disturbed combination between them, as well as change in the ratio between its components.
For the technique is important, not just the right combination of the show and the story, but also the sequence in using them on trips. The story can not exist without the show is not in terms of their simultaneous occurrence, but in terms of their interaction and interdependence in a single trip.
Here's what it looks like in practice:
Story = >> = >> display showing the story = >> = >> = >> show story = >> = >> show story = >> = >> display showing the story = >> = >> story, etc.
TOUR as the interaction of three components
Every tour is the interaction of three components - a guide, facilities and sightseers. Main in this interaction - the maximum activity of these components. The most important task is every kind of excursion technique activation guide, facilities and sightseers.
In practice, there are various sightseeing guide interaction, objects, and sightseers. The level of activity of each of these components and their increasing role affect the quality of tour activities in general. The interaction of the three components of the excursion is to show basis. The effectiveness of the display to be seen as the result of interaction between the tours, day trippers and objects.
The level of activity tripper (observation, study, and research) can not be reduced to a simple communication between them, and guide visually perceived objects. Man receives information during the trip as through hearing, smell and touch.
The main forms of interaction can be traced to the five stages of whose schemes are discussed below. In the cited schemes observed first appearance, then increase the excursion of the situation, which is seen as a set of circumstances where the variety and organization received trippers impressions make a deeper perception and effective.
The basis for the formation of the excursion is to change the ratio of the two elements of its components - the show and the story.
Guide before the task - report some knowledge on to tourists. This is done in reference to the pre-selected monuments. At this stage of the three components in a state of activity is only one tour - as the source of the reported verbal material. Sightseer passive. The monument is not a "conspiracy."
At this stage, the task set before the tour a little more complicated. Passing their knowledge on to tourists, the guide directs them to objects. However, he makes an attempt to link the spoken language and visuals.
The guide is activated as the head display. The first signs of activity tourists.
Excursionists showing objects and accompanying his action on the topics, the guide uses instructional techniques that promote understanding and memorizing the tour material.
The guide not only transfer their knowledge to tourists, but also provides them with accurate representation of objects and events connected with them. At this stage, a support activity guide is showing technique and narrative. The guide makes the tourists to observe objects, tourists become more attentive and active.
At this stage, there is a guided situation as a set of conditions for active interaction components excursions. The role of the guide is further increased. His actions in relation to the object and excursionists activated.
Combining technique and show the story, using the most appropriate instructional techniques, guide attracts attention of tourists to the object, causing them to study sites. The tour triangle, all three components (the guide, objects, tourists) to actively interact.
In this form of interaction between components even deeper excursion situation. The guide seeks to tourists have a visual representation of everything to tell and show. The images and the story about the events affects tourists, activates their attention and helps them to see objects and events in the form in which he sees them himself. The guide examines the object, using a variety of excursion analysis, succeeds in making the monument itself talked about himself their "language." Sightseers at this stage mastered the material with such more complex activities, such as study and research facilities.
Each of the schemes gives an idea of ??a certain stage of development trips. In these stages are activated each component excursions.
Enhancing the role of tour guide. The role of the guide increases in all five stages of the formation of excursions.
In the first stage the tour manager of the event - it is a lecturer, who, opening theme, about the events and only marginally attractive visuals, but at this stage of the visual range may not be.
In the second stage tour manager continues to act as a lecturer. At the same time, the position put forward in the story, he confirms the visual reasoning, and partly by using a procedure of the story, a few trips enhances visibility.
In the third stage the head excursion - still lecturer. However, in the story it is more extensive use of instructional techniques. In some cases, verbal arguments are replaced by the visual demonstration of the series, starting to influence the audience the two kinds of evidence - verbal and visual. For the first time the head excursion begins to act as a demonstrator sites, though the story still holds the lead.
In the fourth stage director ceases to be a tour lecturer. Speaking (story), and visual evidence (showing) are reversed. The leading role that belonged story, goes to show. The main driving force behind the perception of the presented material guide, become instructional techniques show that at this stage begins to use the guide, turning a lecture tour in the average quality.
At the fifth stage of the tour manager of the event - this is the guide in the truest sense of the word. He brings to the knowledge of tourists on the maximum use of the principle of clarity. The story plays a secondary role, it becomes a commentary on the show.
To guide the following typical attitude to the audience: the informant, the commentator, the interlocutor, adviser, manager of the process of learning and education (emotional leader).
Each tour - a combination of these positions. They are used depending on the nature of the presented materials, tasks, tours, knowledge and skills of the guide.
Activation of the tour of the object. Effectiveness trips depends on the objects they display sequence, abilities and skills of the guide, its level of professionalism.
The task of the guide - with the story and the show cause "talk" object. Getting to this task, the guide must be clear and the nature of the objects themselves, and the subject of the show.
Observation of the object, based on instructional techniques jobs excursionists, the object is activated. Identified trippers ins and outs are used as visual evidence in the story.
In the object is activated tour guides helps professional skills (knowledge of the techniques, the ability to comply with its requirements). It is important to install excursionists, what and how to observe, to ensure that they are properly and with maximum efficiency had the necessary follow-up.
Activation of sightseers. This process depends on the actions of the guide. He with his story about the object and the events associated with it, affects tourists, helping them to see the object the way it sees itself. The guide organizes the observation of the object, using a variety of instructional techniques enhance tourists: localization tasks, visual analogies, and methods of analysis, synthesis, abstraction, etc.
The tour guide, trying to increase the perception of objects and a tour of the material comes from the fact that the visitor is not cut off from life. He attended the lectures, discussions, presentations, radio, watching movies, TV shows, go to the theater, a planetarium, ie receives information from a variety of sources, has some training. Thus, the knowledge gained on tour, only complement the knowledge gained earlier. Much less information received on tour, is the primary character. During activation tripper must rely on the knowledge he has on the subject.
Observation - the first stage of the activity of tourists, which follows the initial examination. "The observation - that is noticed, noticed the attentive viewing" (Dictionary of the Russian language. T. 2, 1958. - S. 448). Watch - means to follow an object with his eyes, seeing and perceiving its individual parts. Ability to observe and involves a person's ability to see in the subject in front of him, the details, particularly the details.
The study - the second, higher level of activity of tourists. The study - seeing tour of the object in order to get a deeper knowledge of it, understand its purpose, structure, features. The word "study" is considered to mean something to learn thoroughly.
The study - the third, the highest level of activity tourists. Is a profound study of the object, its careful consideration of a pre-set goal: elucidation of a question, get an answer, determination of the causes of historical events or natural phenomena.
The basis of observation, study and research is the human qualities such as observation, the desire and ability to provide significant of visual objects, to see their subtle details and features. Development of observation of people is one of the objectives of the guide.
Observation - a perception that is closely connected with the activity of thinking - by comparison, discernment, analysis. No wonder the observation is sometimes called the thinking perception '" .
Observation requires tripper focus and concentration. "Watch - is not just to look, and to consider, not just to listen, and listen. Observation enables us to understand better the surroundings, make the right conclusions ". 
The problem of enhancing tripper - intensification of perception tour material. From high or low interest participants to objects story of the guide depends on the level of attention and efficiency of learning.
The driving force of the excursion is to enhance the components of the show, his technique, the organization of independent observation of objects trippers.
The difference between these types of dating sites is the fact that independent analysis of the tourists is increasing.