Tour is an organic combination of objective and visual clarity, and an important addition to this unique combination of its kind - words. Important in the process of excursion ensure organic unity between what a person receives when observing objects and explanatory guide. What is a tour story? Story - conditionally accepted by the tour actually the name of the oral excursions, ie notes and explanations, which gives the group tour. This shape information about the monuments, historical events and activities of specific historical figures.
In assessing the role of narrative in the excursion scientists ekskursionisty always been unanimous, regardless of differences of opinion on other issues excursion theory and methodology. They believed that the story: is in addition to the visual display of the material, he does not have to be lengthy, you can not avoid turning into a lecture tour.
Story of the guide has two purposes: a) says, explains what he saw complements b) reconstructs and restores that can not currently see the camper.
In addition to the story in the beginning of the guide verbal tour is reflected in the answers to the questions of tourists, replicas of the guide and the responses to cues of tourists, in the foreword and final part, displays exhibits "portfolio guide."
Story - it sounded individual text guide, filled them with the requirements of the oral public speaking and presenting a sample monologue speech.
The tour is the story of the rise of oral information to the visual, from the visual impressions - to verbal assessments and conclusions.
B. E. Raikov suggested that the underdeveloped group new to the work of the excursion, sometimes refer to the explanations as to something completely superfluous and unnecessary, which they did not expect. For them, the tour - just a spectacle as possible an entertaining spectacle, and verbal comments to somehow burdened. With this attitude should be considered, highlighting the specific content of the tour. He noted that the duration of the theoretical explanation for tours undesirable because zasushivayut it and it becomes a mere lecture. With poorly prepared the audience have to be in this sense especially careful here exponential party - everything.
NA Geynike believed that an exaggerated importance in the study of narrative threads, the prevalence of verbal material in the tour deprives it of important advantages. The most common mistake the guide is that it not only shows the sightseeing stuff as talks about it, ie suppresses independent work trippers making a trip to a lecture with illustrations. He believed that all what was going on in the tour must be in visual range. The guide shows a group of objects, and was accompanied by a profound analysis, explanations, historical references.
The role of the objects is to help visibly restore tour guide for sightseers past convincingly paint a picture of life. The depth of the story dictated by the object, its features, the amount of information that the object has. Story time for tours should be significantly less than the total duration of the tour.
Story on the tour in full prepared in advance. Wrong to consider the story of the guide as improvisation, ie product, content and language features which are formed only at the time of its execution. At the same time, this does not mean that the story of the guide can be impromptu. We are talking about an example, statements of fact, a small poem or passage from a work of art that are included in the story is called a group, or a significant event that has just happened in the life of this city and country. For example, if the guide when meeting with the group discovers that it is composed of teachers - in the story may be included an example of one of the city's schools. Following press reports of a significant event in the life of the country - public elections, the new presidential decree .. tour in the survey or other excursions gives a brief description of what happened. Such short impromptu born during the trip.
Basic requirements for the story: tematichnost, specificity, coherence, consistency, brevity, credibility, accessibility statement, completeness judgment, communication with the display, scientific.
Feature of the story is that he has the character monologue. At the same time, it should be noted that some guides are attempting to turn part of the tour in the open and hidden dialog. In the dialogue between the guide and tourists increases the activity of the perception of the material.
The transition verbal part of the excursion from monologue to dialogue important place answers sightseers and "work" the guide to their remarks.
Replica tripper - it is his opinion about something, and not always correct. Away from the tourists should not be replicas. There is a certain technique of "work" with replicas of the guide. Response to the cue (in reaction to the opinion of one tripper) must be skillfully woven into the story of the guide. At the absurdity of a replica should not be passionate, to tactfully explain the inconsistency of views. Response to any remark should not detract from the excursion threads violate the logic of the story. Sometimes replica show approval trippers individual proposals put forward by the hotel, to express the attitude of the audience heard. In this case, the guide, based on the expressed opinion, continues the story, and that makes it more compelling. In this case, the guide speaks from the position of speaker.
In forms such as tour-consultation and a tour and demonstration, story of the guide is designed as a conversation. Some conversations are based on question-answer reception with questions are asked as a guide, and day trippers. The method gives due importance of concepts such as the content of excursions, its forms of instructional techniques and narrative.
They are linked with a question: what to say, how to say it and for what purpose. If we talk about the story of the guide as a whole, before it sets the task of helping to tourists properly see, understand and appreciate the object, based on what he saw come to the right conclusions. In his story, and the tour guide informs the audience about such object properties, which are not perceived visually. It summarizes the observations of tourists, helping them to more accurately perceive the information. One part of the story defines the objects, and the other - explains, the third - describes the objects (reveal their quality), the fourth - gives an idea of ??the visual appearance, the fifth - "paints" the picture of the event. Depending on these tasks using certain instructional techniques story.
One of the tasks of the story - the definition, interpretation of the subject, which will be discussed.
Any definition of the subject at the tour's story must be clear and proportionate (amount determined by the concept should be the same definition, which is given). It should not be negative (negative) and controversial, should not be built on the negative. The purpose of the definition - clarifying the content of the concepts. (For example, "architecture - an art form", or rather "architecture - the art of building", "obelisk - monument", but rather "an obelisk - monument, built in the form of a tapered column up.")
The definition is given by equation: There are real and nominal definitions. The actual definition of the essential features of open item (object) with a nominal definition - instead of a description of the object (the object) introduces the term (the name of the object), explains the meaning and origin. (For example, "The public sale of property where the owner is the one who offered a higher price, called the auction", "sculptural or architectural structure in memory of someone or something called a monument.")
Kinds of definitions.
In excursion practice widely used both types of definitions.
Transformation of oral speech (stories) in visual images
The term "transformation" means the conversion, transformation. Methodists and guide the development of a new excursion topic should be kept in mind especially skills with the requirements of professional tour guide, and especially such an important feature, as in the story of the transformation of visual images from tourists.
For the conversion of one kind of information (speech) to another (visual images) should be created to certain conditions. This transformation depends on the content of the story, the language the hotel (its imagery), on the method of presenting the material. The opportunity for transformation discloses the use of excerpts from works of art. Built on this methodological procedure of installation and reception of literary quotations.
The transformation of a certain part of the story is a guide during the show and with his active "assistance."
Intelligibility of speech, its accuracy, expression, beauty depends on several factors: the right choice of words to express ideas, constructing sentences, between sentences, the use of expressive means in the speech the technique of speech (breath, voice, diction), compliance with speech intonation. In the tour uses two forms of the story:
a) a narrative story that gives excursionists a clear idea of ??where and how the events took place;
b) The story of reconstruction, which aims to restore the mind's eye of tourists of any object (buildings, structures, memorable place.)
Language guide has to meet certain criteria. Criterion of clarity - clarity and accessibility of the speech to the audience. Criterion of accuracy - that the content of the speech ideas guide, purpose and theme tours. Criterion of purity of speech - logically justified use of linguistic resources guide.
FEATURES TO TRAVEL STORY
In practice it is possible to detect six features the story:
1. Dependence on the speed of movement of the story of the group.
Subordinated to the rhythm of the story movement of tourists, tour route. For example, the story prepared for trips with children, can not be readily used in tours for adults because of the different speeds of movement of these groups. Is not the same story as a pedestrian and bus excursions to the same topic.
2. The subordination of the story show. Story of the guide can not be abstracted from the objects of the show, which are located on the route. The content of the story is subordinated to the task of observation facilities. The story was accompanied by objects, complements and explains what they see tourists, aims to recreate the visual picture, which according to the authors excursions should occur before the mind's eye of tourists. The content of the story is defined by the object of study (Nature, exhibition of the museum, historical monuments, places of significant events).
3. The use of visual evidence in the story. Feature of the story is that there are no oral evidence. Their role does visuals. The guide builds so the display to "speak" the object to tourists saw what he says. This is achieved through imaginative story, skillful display of the monument, display visuals of "portfolio guide." The story is not associated with visual side by side, too much detail in the story leading to this shortage, as a lecture.
4. Targeting of the story, that is, Binding to the observed objects trippers. Targeted story guide is that, telling the tour guide was referring to a particular object - a building, an architectural ensemble of engineering, natural monument, etc.
Feature of the methodology is to provide guidance to tourists: what to look for, which addresses the story of the guide, which part of the building structure (floor, window, balcony, bay), he has in mind, what plants are shown. This understanding is achieved with specific instructions exactly where this event took place, where the man lived, which explains the guide, whose activities he describes. If the show is going on in the street, built a few houses, located next to, and sometimes similar to each other, the guide describes the color (white, black, red), which is painted in the right building, its exterior features - floors, design features. Making sure that tourists understand what kind of building will be discussed (learned the address of the story), the guide continues to conduct tours.
5. Concreteness tour story. Specifically - it is not only the wording of topics, but in and of themselves of the facts and their interpretation. Specificity requires that the tour is presented not matter at all, but the material, revealing the specific topic.
Wrong to consider the concrete in the story guide as an abundance of facts (facts, examples, dates, numbers, names of characters).
Specification of the material in the tour - an expression of thought, presenting a particular position in a more precise and concrete form.
6. Asserting the nature of the story. Speaking about the historic event, the tour guide with a maximum persuasively argued that it happened that way, it is at this point that the participants were referred to their faces, and not someone else. The tour guide, describing a particular event, it relates to the present (past or future) time, presented it as an objective fact and points to the specific person who commits (committed or will commit) this action.
You must have in mind a feature of the story, as the presence of a subtext. Subtext - it is internal, additional (hidden in speech) meaning of the text, the story guide. The subtext is reflected in feelings guide, emotional richness of his narrative, gestures and facial expressions, the tone of the question. The essence of the subtext - the ratio of the guide to the subject, the assessment of certain facts or details to expound some material.
Well prepared and conducted tour allows you to see the mind's eye sightseer something more than what is in front of him at the moment as an object or group of objects of observation.
Visual objects most interesting excursions are not their own, but due to the events that took place at these sites, or were related to them. Denoting by A tour object, and the letter B - events associated with them, we get a simple formula: A + B. The content of this formula in practice has many sightseeing options. Some of them are.
Story in relation to the show sounds at different times: before the show, during the show and after the show. So, in a thematic tour, we are dealing with three different stories on the same topic. In the first case, the story of the object precedes the observation of tourists. Usually - it is a brief overview of the object, whose mission to draw attention of tourists on any particular object, to interest them with curious details. (For example, anticipating the show Bogoliubov castle tour guide drew attention to the stair tower, where a night in June 1174 enacted the bloody tragedy. Here was killed by conspirators boyars Prince Andrew Bogolyubsky.) In the second case, during the show visuals complements the story has Help shape, features, commentary, reporting, explaining, at least - a description or literary editing. In the third case, after the show the story more concise - is a brief conclusion about what he saw, a short story, sometimes two or three sentences on tour. As a rule, any instructional techniques in detention are not used.
Of the three options presented story and show the interaction takes place only in the second - the word directly interact with the object and most fully reveals the topic. In the first case the word is preceded by a show in the third - concludes the show.
Verbal tour got back to the code name "story." In reality, it is an informational and analytical materials, and details of comments when displaying objects, assessments and conclusions on key issues and sub-themes. The guide tells the story explains, describes, gives an idea of ??the visual appearance of an object, a picture of the event. The story is in its conventional sense is only a part of the performance guide.
The tour story using different forms that have long excursion workers referred to the story of instructional techniques - information, descriptions, specifications, explanations, comments, etc.