Classification is the distribution of objects, phenomena, concepts into classes, departments, ranks according to their common characteristics.
The designation of tours has always been the focus of tour professionals and scientists ekskursionistov. The first attempts to solve this problem, refer to the end of the 1920s. Scientist Gerd ekskursionist VA said about his version of the classification of the forms of the excursion, the main purpose is to divide the tour into groups and subgroups, and the selection of the main traits that determine the nature of trips, ie helps managers focus on all matters of negotiation. This selection will give some basic features of the central types of excursions, which would join the intermediate CLASSIFICATION vague excursions.
Excursions as a self-employed (eg, lodges, clubs, schools), and part of a complex of tourist services (tourist firms). Currently, tours are classified into: a) content, b) the composition and the number of participants, and c) at the venue, and d) the method of movement, and e) the duration, e) in the form of .
Each group has its inherent components, specification and features.
On the content of sightseeing tours are divided into (multi-dimensional) and thematic.
Sightseeing tours, usually multitopicality. It is no accident they are called multi-faceted. They use historical and contemporary material. We construct a tour to show a variety of objects (historical and cultural monuments, buildings, natural sites, site of the famous events of improvement of the city, industrial and agricultural enterprises, etc.).
In general tour event presents a close-up. This gives a general idea of ??the city, province, region, country, state as a whole. The chronological framework of this tour - the existence of the first mention of it to date and prospects for development.
Sightseeing tours have their own characteristics. In contrast to the case in which the wording is very complex topic. Regardless of where they are prepared and carried out, they are almost similar to each other in the first place in its structure. In each of them covers several sub-themes (the city's history, a brief description of industry, science, culture, education, etc.). At the same time, sightseeing tours have their own distinctive features. They are dictated by the peculiarities of historical development, which are inherent in a particular city, region edge. For example, the military-historical subtopic include sightseeing tours in the cities, in areas that have experienced military combat. Literary subtopics included in the sightseeing tours of the cities connected with the life and work of writers, poets, etc.
Thematic tour is devoted to the same theme, if this city tour, then it can be taken as a basis, one or more events, united by one theme, and sometimes over a long period of time. If this is the tour to the architectural theme, a subject of study may be the most interesting pieces of architecture, located in the streets and squares of the city, and the City - architectural ensembles of the past centuries.
Thematic tours are divided into historical, industrial and natural history (ecology), art, literature, architecture and town planning.
In content, historical tours are divided into the following subgroups:
- Historical and regional studies (eg, "The history of the city of Perm," "History of the Garden Ring," etc.);
- Archaeological (eg, in the Chersonese showing real historical sources-excavation);
- Ethnographic, telling about the manners and customs of different nations and nationalities;
- Military history, which are held in places of military glory (eg, "Borodino", etc.);
- Historical and biographical (in places the life and work of famous people);
- Excursions to historic museums.
Production tours are divided into subgroups:
- Industrial and historical;
- Industrial and economic (eg, banking, stock market activity, the housing market, etc.);
- Technical production;
- Professional orientation for students.
Art history tours are subgroups:
- A historical drama (for example, "From the history of Russian theater," "Gypsy Theater in Moscow," etc.);
- Historical-musical (eg, "Moscow Music", etc.);
- On folk arts and crafts (such as Gzhel, Palekh, Fedoskino, etc.);
- The places of life and cultural activities (such as "Tchaikovsky in Klin," "Shalyapin in Moscow", "Abramtsevo", etc.);
- In art galleries and exhibition halls, museums, artists' and sculptors.
Literary tours are usually grouped as follows:
- Literary and biographical. Held in places that the memory of the life and work of the writer, poet, playwright, etc. (Eg, "Pushkin in Moscow and the Moscow region," "Kuprin in St. Petersburg", etc.);
- Literary history, revealing certain periods of development of the Russian national literature (eg, "Literary Moscow 20 years of XX century", "Literary Eagle", etc.);
- Literary and artistic - is poetic and text tours (for example, "White Nights in St. Petersburg"), or excursions to places that are reflected in the works of a writer (eg, "In the footsteps of heroes Sholokhov", "Moscow in a work of Tolstoy's "War and Peace", "etc.).
Classification tours architectural and urban themes:
- Excursions showing architectural structures of the city;
- Excursions associated with the display of architectural monuments of a historical period;
- Tours that give an idea about the work of an architect;
- Tours that introduce the planning and building of the city Master Plan;
- Excursions with demonstration examples of modern architecture;
- Exploration of new building.
It should be noted that the special tours of a species rarely exist in isolation from each other. For example, the historical material used in tours to architectural and urban themes, elements of natural history tours find a place in almost every group tours thematic excursions. Everything depends on the specific conditions of the tour, from the resources of the cognitive plan of a city or region.
On the composition and quantity of the excursion participants are subdivided into individual, for the community, the tourists, adults and students, etc.
Especially the perception of the material tour of each of the groups require changes to the content of activities, methods and techniques of their conduct, as well as their duration.
At the place of excursion are: urban, suburban, industrial, museum, complex (combining elements of several).
According to the method of transportation - walking and using various modes of transport.
The advantage of walking tours is that by creating the required rate of movement, they provide favorable conditions for the show and the story.
Transport trips (in most bus) consists of two parts: an analysis of excursion sites (eg, historical and cultural monuments) at bus stops and the story in the way between the objects associated with the characteristic monuments and places, past the next batch.
Some institutions use for sightseeing excursions trolleybuses, trams, river and sea ships, helicopters, etc.
Duration of the tour is from 1 academic hour (45 minutes) to a day.
Short tours (1 to 3-4 days) is called weekend itinerary, they may have a range of excursions of varying duration.
The shape of the tour can be different:
- Tour-extras. Its members are moved along the route at the same time for 10-20 buses, each of which runs a tour guide. Such excursions may include massive theatrical shows, folklore festivals, etc.;
- Tour-walk, which combines elements of knowledge with the rest elements, is held in the woods in the park, on the sea, river, etc.;
- Lecture tour (story dominates the show);
- Tour concert dedicated to listening to music theme music in the bus;
- Tour-show - a form of literary and artistic excursions, prepared on the basis of specific works of fiction, etc.
Tour can be considered a form of academic work for different groups of tourists. It can be:
- Tour-consultation, which gives a clear answer to the questions of tourists, is one of the types of training;
- A tour and demonstration - this is the most obvious form of acquaintance with natural phenomena, processes, and so on;
- Tour-lesson is a form of communication of knowledge in accordance with the curriculum of a school;
- Educational tour (for specific audiences) is a form of education and training tour of workers;
- Test tour is the final stage of individual work to prepare and conduct tours, form validation of knowledge of the students or working guides when preparing the new excursion topic;
- Demonstration tour - a form of field trips, whose goal is to show a sample of a methodological device for a particular facility, to open a sub-topic, etc.;
- Promotional tour.
Tours division at clearly defined groups in practice is somewhat arbitrary, but is of great importance for the activity tour agencies. Correct classification Tours provides the best conditions for the organization of the guide with clients, facilitates specialization, provides the basis for the work of teaching sections. Using the laws of the excursions to a specific group helps to make each trip prepared and effective. When developing new excursions by more fully and purposefully used the achievement of individual disciplines.
1. What are the main features are classified excursion?
2. Classified as a tour of the content?
3. What is a city tour? What are its characteristics?
4. What is a thematic tour? Which of these excursions are divided?
5. What groups are divided manufacturing excursion?
6. What is art criticism tour?
7. What kinds of literary tours you know?
8. Tell us about the architectural and urban excursions.
9. What is the classification of the Tour for participation?
10. As fall tour of the venue and the way of transportation?
11. What is the importance of classification of excursions?