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Table of contents


Kinds of tourism

Excursion (author BV Emelyanov)

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
introduction

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
1. Fundamentals Excursion

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
2. guided technique

3. Professional skills guide

Tunisia (author Danielle shetar Friedrich chum)

In the Sikhote-Alin (author VK Arseniev)

Michail bulgakov. the heart of a dog

Mikhail bulgakov. the master and margarita

Charlotte bronte. jane eyre

F. scott fitzgerald / the great gatsby

Jerome klapka jerome / three men in a boat


 Home
     1. Fundamentals Excursion
          1.7. The logic in excursions

The logic of the tours

No matter how extensive knowledge excursion gadfly, just using logic in a clear and definite form, they can be brought to the audience. Experience shows that many guides, almost without knowing the laws of logic, thinking and reasoning correctly and convincingly. They do this by relying on the natural intuitive logic, developed during years of practice. "However, this is not always intuitive logic coping with challenges facing it" [40].

The content material of any tour, a tour of the material form of presenting and displaying objects, should be based on the requirements of logic - the science of the laws and forms, which takes the human mind. These laws should be reflected in the story of the tour, the guide speech construction, as well as in the types of excursion analysis.

Some of the laws of logic are: certainty, consistency, consistency, and validity. Logical form - the structure, the structure of thought. Logical methods - comparison, analysis, synthesis, abstraction and generalization.

Methodists and the tour guide in creating tours to consider the effect of basic laws of thought: identity, contradiction, excluded middle and sufficient reason. [41]

The law of identity. In the tour, he finds expression in the fact that the story guide about an object (event or phenomenon) this object should not be replaced by another, the concepts in the story had a different meaning. Every thought in the process of reasoning must be identical to itself.

Law of contradiction. It requires that in the story about the object (phenomenon, event), the latter is not seen as something different from what it represents (ie, two opposing ideas can not be true at the same time, if they are the same object or phenomenon and its contents contradict each other.) This means that any idea in the story guide can not change its content during the tour (ie, no judgment can not be both true and false). The authors of the tour does not have to be contradicted in the interpretation of historical events or the assessment of, the polar express (ie opposing) views on the same subject.

Law of excluded middle says that between affirmation and negation of something there is nothing of the third. If one thought says another - denies it is a true one of these opinions and not some third idea. In nominating the tour story variant judgments about a single event or object, the guide selects the preferred option, thus asserting its truth. While another variant expressed negative attitude.

The law of sufficient reason to require that all thought was reasonable. Only under this condition, it can be considered true. Any true thought to be confirmed by other thoughts, the truth of which is indisputable, ie proved. In the story, a guide to avoid unsubstantiated, unfounded judgments. Every judgment must be properly grounded.

Possession laws of logic allows Methodists and guide successfully address the following logical problem:

- To ensure the presentation of evidence at the tour material with convincing arguments and above all skillful use of visual arguments;

- Define a logical sequence in the coverage of historical events, characterization of the facts and examples;

- The formulation of conclusions, which contain verbal part of the tour and its visuals;

- Selection logic in the use of each of instructional techniques and show the story;

- Selection of the optimal composition of trips, structure, provides a logical opening theme.

Meeting the requirements of logic in the tour is different. Chief among them is that verbally presented abstracts and regulations are explained mainly by visual arguments.

In fact, the process of knowledge one acquires knowledge. They are divided into two parts: a) the knowledge gained under the influence of objects around us to our senses, and b) knowledge obtained by deriving from the knowledge already available. Last called pin or indirect knowledge. [42]

Of great importance for the practice of holding a logical form guide learning. This form is the reasoning - a form of thinking that allows one or more judgments shows the new judgment. In the tours, which uses sometimes controversial material inference, based on logic, allows to make the right conclusions. Any inference consists of three stages: premises, findings and conclusions. Parcels - basic judgments, of which displays a new judgment. Conclusion - a logical transition from premises to conclusion. Conclusion - a new proposition derived from the premises.

Logical construction material tours has focused on the impact of tourists, provides the most complete understanding and remembering to show and tell the guide. The logic of thinking and acting head of the tour is of interest to tourists, attracts their attention to the subject, make yourself think about the material presented, brings tourists to the correct conclusion.

It should be remembered that the logic is "mine" in the support structure of each excursion, whatever subject it may be dedicated. This refers to the logical progression. However, do not go using logic to limit their effect as a transitional bridge in the story. Nor do attempts by logical transition to link the displayed monuments to bridge site to site regardless of the content of the story, accompanied by a display of these monuments.

The main feature of logical transition is that it is the end, and for parts of the show (to each other), and for parts of the story. He is a verbal-visual bridge between visual objects and verbally the main issues and subtopics.

The content of logical transitions between the same monuments in tours on various themes. This is because every time the story is about some historical events, and logical progression, as part of the story reflects its content. Those parts of a logical transition, which serve as the "bridge" from one monument to another, regardless of the topic in all tours are identical.

The value of logical transitions in large excursions. Anticipating the content of another sub, causing the desired emotion excursion participants, such transitions create the necessary conditions for better absorption of sub-themes and holistic learning across subjects.

In the methodological literature attempts highlight logical transitions using concepts:

- Subordinates, when after explaining the specific facts of the valiant work of the people in the rear, the guide goes to show the wide events of the Great Patriotic War of 1941-1945.;

- Identical as to the story of the forest areas of natural history tours tour guide makes a logical transition to the show-steppe zone;

- The opposite, when the transition from one part of the excursion, which was showing the memorial estate "Yasnaya Polyana" near Tula to the assessment of the actions of German occupiers, destroyed and desecrated the monument of Russian and world culture;

- Correlative when using logical transition tourists attention is directed to the comparison just shown monument to another, which will be shown, one problem, which was mentioned on the other, which is dedicated to the further story of the guide;

- Subordinate, when the transition is made to a logical characteristics of a single event, such as fighting a military unit, to the characterization of the battle as a whole (Stalingrad).

All of these options are used logical transitions between sub-themes to unify the material together.

In addition, the preparation of the control text and methodological development of the task excursions - to link the individual components of the sub-themes, in particular the major issues within the sub-theme. This logical relationship contributes to our disclosure of subtopics.

The tour is widely used in the story logically, which are a form of thought, affirm or deny anything in relation to the observed object.

Logical judgments can be made to the following objectives:

- Selection of the subject of the observation of the environment, separating it from other objects. Built on this methodological procedure of abstraction;

- The disclosure of (surveillance) of a certain part of the look of the object. On this tour we construct different forms of analysis;

- Consideration of the relationship between the object as a whole and the selected part of it.

Possession laws of logic helps the tour guide to solve several problems faced by the tour, make a convincing presentation of the material, the necessary connection of thoughts, understanding and memorizing material trippers. The laws of logic and requirements must be taken into account when developing new themes (in the selection of facts and logic transitions), joining the main issues in the sub-theme and sub-themes - into one harmonious whole. Authors excursions in the preparation route, the design of the control text content and methodological development of the logic of development guided excursion theme. Methodical workers and tour guides in preparing tours, building demonstration facilities based on the requirements of logic: to guide sequence, highlight stage show, back them instructional techniques. On this basis, a system of job excursionists, watching excursion object.

Conclusions.

Logical laws in preparing and conducting tours play an important role. The whole excursion technique, its methods are tailored to the requirements of the laws and logic. Participation in excursions and should help logical thinking in the participants. Work guide for the preparation and conduct of excursions is subject to the laws and requirements of logic, makes the logical thinking of the guide.

Tour organizers error process is the substitution of visual arguments with objects lengthy discourse guides.

Knowledge of the law and the requirements of logic, skillful use of them in the preparation and conduct tours are the foundation of effective tour process. Logical reasoning and hronologichnost a hike - an important condition of perception tour material.

Test questions:

1. What is the logic?

2. The basic laws of thought.

3. Laws and requirements of logic.

4. Logical transitions.

5. Logical reasoning tasks.

6. The role of logic in increasing the efficiency of excursions.


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