Mental state - is a certain level of mental activity, which is manifested in the individual's activity. The basis for the emergence of various mental states are the specific conditions under which the guide and the tourists are: conditions of life and labor climate in the team, the state of health (physiological factor) atmospheric processes (weather, pressure, etc.).
There are several types of mental state of the individual: the general state of mind, which is the basis of perception, emotional state (mood), intelligent creative condition, volitional state (ready for action).
Methodists and the tour guide in the preparation and conduct tours to consider such features of the participants, as the ability, character, temperament, and natural qualities - the memory, observation, imagination and ingenuity. During the tour the guide focuses on a specific group based on the fact that the activity level (high or low) depends on the mental state of each of the tourists.
Tour as a learning process. The meaning of knowledge is that it is absorbed during a certain truth. Cognition - the process of reflection and reproduction of reality in thinking. At the same time, the interaction of the subject (tripper) and object (the monument), in which the subject receives knowledge. The process of knowledge on trips is the scheme: visibility - perception (sensation, representation) - the formation of concepts based on the receipt of representations trippers.
Tour as a learning process is a domain-sensitive, practical activity. Knowledge objects - objects of the external world - the monuments of history and culture, nature, historical sites, etc.
The process of knowledge begins with the senses of human contact with the object. The perception of the observed objects are based on visual and auditory sensations. With their help the understanding of the. The process of knowledge continues to abstract thinking sightseers. On this basis, they conclude. Tour as a learning process consists of two parts: the sensory perception (sensation, perception, representation) and logical cognition (thinking). The above are the basis of the tour.
Feeling - a sensuous image, the mental process of reflection by the human brain individual properties of objects and phenomena. Feelings enable a person to appear in your mind such properties and qualities of objects and phenomena, such as their size, shape, sound, temperature, smell, speed, strength, weight, etc. The feeling is the source for these sensual images, perception and representation.
The perception is the result of the impact on the senses of the object. It is more complicated than a feeling, and is built on a few impressions. Each of them represents a separate property of an object, phenomenon, event. Collection of sensations is what is called perception.
The perception of a hike - the result of the impact of the object and oral information on the senses of tourists. Perceptions are divided into visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and gustatory. Foundations of perception of each species - appropriate type of perception (visual, auditory, tactile). The most developed in human knowledge of reality is visual perception.
For tours are required focus and unity of experience, tends to strengthen the perception of the analyzed material. One of the objectives is to provide a guide to tourists set the perception of objects, observation of certain details and features monuments. Settings can be made to memorize events, facts, cited in the story guide. No less important are set to stimulate thinking sightseers.
The value of units in the process efficiency overestimated. Installation is a psychological basis for the activity of the individual. They, mingling with the content of the story or its organizational guidelines that ensure sustainability focused activities tripper (observation, study, research) in relation to tour facilities.
Considering the notion of "installation" in connection with a tour process, we mean short-term action of each of the plants, as a rule, within the boundaries of one particular trip. In some cases, the installation guide are also reflected in the behavior of tourists (in their relation to nature, cultural heritage sites, etc.).
Watching excursion objects, sightseers distinguish not only individual external parties, but also its properties, such as size, color, shape, location, combined with other objects, similar to them, unlike them, etc. Based on explanations guide, based on the methodology show they take the sum of these parties and the properties reflected in their minds. This allows you to correctly perceive the object as a whole.
The preparation and conduct tours to keep in mind: past experience of man, active nature of perception, depending on the mental characteristics of tourists, his mood, selective perception (selection object among others, as well as the allocation of the necessary parts in the object), the meaningfulness of perception, and the dependence of perception on life experience to tourists, his knowledge of practical skills, objectivity and integrity; structural (reflected in the perception of different parts and properties of the object.)
The perception of the tour of the material is based on a combination of three types of mental processes: cognitive (feeling, idea, thought, imagination), emotional (the experience), volitional (the effort to maintain attention, activation of memory). These processes are related. Their effectiveness is determined by external influences faced by the individual, his mental state.
Much attention is paid scientists ekskursionisty factor such intensification of perception, as interest in the observed object. "The intensity is determined by the perception of the degree of interest in the object of perception. It is a known fact that every psychologist lack of interest, and therefore the activity, the person to the phenomena for it brand new, unknown. Interest turned to her what was already somewhat familiar. In this way creates a mental bridge takes hold thread tangle of perception. " In this connection should be selected for the tour of "material close to the temperament, even led to the aesthetic taste of" .
Guided technique uses different ways to improve the perception of the material. Beginning of perception can serve the process of recognition of the object (of the monument in the town square, the paintings in the museum, etc.), participants observed trips. Is the identification of the object, known to tourists from photographs, reproductions, descriptions (Tsar Cannon, Bronze Horseman, "Tachanka", "Eaglet"). Learning object tripper calls to his aid memory. He tries to remember where he had seen the monument. In his mind, there is a replacement image of the subject in the memory of the image on the reproductions, photographs, pictures (visual clarity) an objective reflection of the original (natural clarity). The basis of it is the comparison of recognition, the mental perception of cash compared with traces stored in memory.
Important role in enhancing the perception by many different forms of narrative. One of them - a problematic presentation of the material: the guide raises the question, which requires permission, and involves tourists in finding an answer. Another way to enhance the perception - in the story of the transition from monologue to dialogue. Before trippers raises questions. Tourists, using their knowledge, seek out the answers to these questions, comparing them with messages guide. Important place in perception is a psychological climate in tour group. By understanding the prevailing psychological climate and relatively stable mood of the team. The signs of this climate are optimism, cheerfulness, enthusiasm for tourists.
Performance, compared with the sensations and perceptions, has more generalizations. Representation is not determined only by the fact that tourists are watching ourselves in the moment. Views enable sightseers compare combining previously captured images in their minds, so they're watching right now, to obtain reliable information about the subject. However, the presentation does not disclose internal communications facility. Representation - is "... the image of objects that influence the human senses, recovered from the remaining traces in the brain, in the absence of these objects and phenomena, and the image created by the efforts of the productive imagination ... Presentation in two forms - in the form of memories and imagination. If the perception is only the present, the view at the same time refers to the present and to the past ". 
Representations associated with thinking, they are an intermediate, a link between the sensible and logical knowledge. The role of ideas is important because the basis of the excursion is the process by which the tourists talk, jump to the conclusion, abstract, some of the findings of other thoughts, which contains something new.
In the process of thinking visitor to compare and contrast, analyze and synthesize. Thinking is not a direct reflection of the excursion objects and phenomena of life in people's minds. Thinking - a more complex process, "are mental acts aimed at clarifying the relationship between objects" . This is the highest stage of human knowledge. Thinking allows a person to gain knowledge about objects, their properties and relationships, which can not be made at the sensory level of cognition. Perceptual knowledge gives him a picture of external reality. Thinking provides knowledge of the laws of both nature and society. Thinking - the process of generalized reflection establish substantial connections and relationships between objects and phenomena of reality.
Thinking is the result of the formation of concepts. The concept is a set of propositions about the most common essential characteristics which distinguish the observed object from other objects that are part of the route excursions or day trippers were observed earlier. In the tour concept - is the result of knowing the object or phenomenon, it is a form of reflection in the thinking of the world.
Concept in the story of the guide takes the form of thought, which says something for a particular object or phenomenon, its relationships with other objects or phenomena.
Further derived concepts are developed into forms of thought, as judgment and reasoning.
In practice, the excursion is widely used analogy, which is the method of scientific inquiry. Applying the analogy, the guide compares similar features, the part of two or more objects and based on this makes conclusions about the similarity of other objects together. Analogy to better understand the phenomena of nature in science field trips.
Before you use the analogy when displaying objects, you must first identify their similarities. Analogy method involves the use of a variety of associations. Ushinskii divides association by similarity, order of time, unity of place. Stressing the importance of associations to the contrary, the great teacher, said: "... there is nothing that clarifies the characteristics of a presentation to us, as opposed to other views - a bright white spot engravings on black, black - on white".  In meetings with a number of events and objects in the human mind there are certain associations: the idea of ??the heat causes the idea of ??a cold, a presentation of the light - of the dark.
Guided technique is based on teaching methods, borrowed from pedagogy: verbal, visual and practical. In the story, the guide uses verbal methods: oral presentation of the material, conversation, explanation, a retelling of the content of a particular source, read explanatory. Much of the show uses visual methods: demonstrations studied objects in nature or in the image; practices - independent work sightseers over the assimilation of material, inspection facilities, etc. Degree of efficiency tours, as mentioned earlier, not only depends on the guide, but from tourists, their active involvement in the process of learning. Therefore guided technique is based on active methods (primarily on the method of observation). Observation is the initial stage of the study and research, it allows you to accumulate the necessary factual information, promotes conscious perception of objects and phenomena.
Inductive and deductive methods of knowledge in a field trip
Show facility tours must be constructed so as to gradually reveal its features. Order of observation, its sequence can wear inductive or deductive in nature. These methods of learning are as important for the methodology, the analysis and synthesis. However, there is a significant difference in their application. If the analysis and synthesis of widely used in that part of the excursion, which was code-named "show", the induction and deduction are finding a place in the story. Induction - a method of reason (logical method), based on inferences from private, individual cases of individual facts to general conclusions and generalizations. Deduction - reasoning, logical inference from the more general to the less general, specific, from general propositions, regulations to individual facts, inference from the premises. Both of these methods of reasoning does not exist in isolation, they are interrelated and complementary.
Tour is an information process - a systematic transfer of information to the audience. In this process, there is a direct and inverse relationship: the guide shows and explains - is a direct link, tourists receive information and express their attitude to it (reaction) - feedback. The reaction is a guide to the reaction of tourists can be seen as a correction of direct communications, leading to further changes in the content and form of the story, as well as methods of displaying objects.
Important role in the learning process is memory important channel of perception. Memory - one of the properties of the nervous system, which is reflected in the ability to remember information. All that is seen and heard sightseer, as he thought that survived, receiving visual and auditory information is delayed in his memory. The main processes are memory storage, preservation, reproduction, recognition, memory.
Types of memory: voluntary and involuntary, direct and indirect, short and long term.
Special types of memory: motor (motor), emotional, imaginative and verbal logic.
Type of figurative memory are visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and gustatory. Perception of the material on trips primarily due to the visual (display), auditory (story) memory and is built on meaningful memorizing material. Successful memorization helps to memorize the setting that gives the tour guide. Expanding the topic, it should be borne in mind the individual characteristics of memory sightseers. Most effective techniques for memorizing material tour seeking people with visual and auditory memory. In presenting the material, the guide is based on the visual memory of tourists, using primarily long-term memory and imagery information that it holds. It takes into account the differences that characterize different groups of tourists.
People with advanced intelligence (thinking abilities) learn better information. People with undeveloped intelligence, having a poor memory, in need of "chewing" of the material - to explain in detail, repetition, extensive commenting observed.
To guide it is important that information is combined perceived sightseers and systematized. Then it will be stored in memory and can be played from memory. The success of these processes depends on how meaningful material, the degree of its importance, plants that give a tour guide.
Attention to the tour - this concentration of thought, vision and hearing people in a facility. The success of the tour depends on the properties of attention, as the activity focus, breadth, intensity and stability.
Attached great importance to the attention of Ushinskii. He called attention to the only door through which the impressions from the outside come in the human soul.