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Table of contents


Kinds of tourism

Excursion (author BV Emelyanov)

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
introduction

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
1. Fundamentals Excursion

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
2. guided technique

3. Professional skills guide

Tunisia (author Danielle shetar Friedrich chum)

In the Sikhote-Alin (author VK Arseniev)

Michail bulgakov. the heart of a dog

Mikhail bulgakov. the master and margarita

Charlotte bronte. jane eyre

F. scott fitzgerald / the great gatsby

Jerome klapka jerome / three men in a boat


 Home
     1. Fundamentals Excursion
          1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process

Tour as a pedagogical process

Important place in the activity guide is pedagogy - the science of the laws of education and training of the younger generation and adults. Any tour gives him new knowledge about nature, society, historical events, natural phenomena, ie it is part of the education process. Communication with a guide, his recommendations, observations also provide educational influence on tourists. He brings up the material, moral, and aesthetic effect on their consciousness. Thus, the tour is part of the educational process, taking on the role of education and education rights, the formation of his world view.

Educational excursion process is based on teaching the principles that define the content, organization and methods of teaching tourists. These principles include: scientific, ideological, connection to life, availability, consistency, clarity and persuasiveness.

Tour as a form of cultural and educational work plays an independent role. As for the secondary school, where it is subject to other types of educational activities - lessons and lectures. In the educational process excursion, as a form of training, its significance is not different from other forms of this process.

However, not only training, but also other excursions in its goals and impact on the participants are the pedagogical process. As with any pedagogical process, the excursion involves two parties: a training guide and trained tourists. The guide informs knowledge on a particular subject, tourists perceive this knowledge. The interaction of these two sides is the basis of the educational process. The guide in the relationship with the audience uses the method of pedagogical influence.

Part of professionalism is a guide pedagogical skills, the art teacher. The concept of "pedagogical skill guide" includes: knowledge in the specialty ability to analyze, imaginative thinking, understanding the psychology tripper, the ability to manage the group, knowledge and skills in the field of educational technology, intuition, respect for individual tourists, as well as the skilful use of pedagogical tools in to education. Pedagogic role to play demanding teacher who encourages and, if necessary, inhibits the activity of tourists, provides the necessary activity in the manifestation of their business and moral qualities.

For the full tour guide can be attributed the task of creating an atmosphere of general experiences of unanimity (in the tour group), which means to create a group of people united by a common interest and intercourse, the team [26].

Tour guides should pay more attention to the educational aspects tours, combined with an educational aspect. Excursion material should be selected and used in such a way as to develop the cognitive abilities of the excursion participants, brought their high moral character - the love of their country, respect for other people, teamwork, etc.

Each group has its own thematic tours of the problem. Natural history tours raise respect for nature, flora and fauna. Art history focused on the aesthetic education of tourists. Production form the love and respect for labor. Many excursions foster respect for the customs and traditions of other peoples living in Russia.

Building the educational process, the guide in the story uses the pedagogical methods to communicate knowledge. They are divided into inductive and deductive. Applying the inductive method of reporting knowledge, the guide summarizes the facts and draw conclusions on the basis of the material, moving from the particular to the general, from the individual facts of the overall situation.

Using the deductive method, it goes from the general to the particular, and only then by argument proves the thesis put forward at first. Typically, as the wording of the sub-themes of the thesis stands or one of the main issues.

Based on the requirements of pedagogy, the guide uses five levels of the transition from direct deductive explanation possible if there is sufficient knowledge of the likely explanation for the absence of sufficient knowledge [27]:

first - an explanation of the facts of the known theoretical knowledge;

second - an explanation of the facts on the basis of the restructuring earlier learning and their combination;

third - way of explaining the statement in the form of deductive guesswork in cases where the explanation can not be the first in two ways;

fourth - the explanation by modeling (inductive-deductive way) or similar;

fifth - inductive explanation. Applied in the absence of the ability to use simulation or analogy.

The logic circuit at the fifth level of the explanation is the following: first, a hypothesis is formulated, then it is in the process of application to new facts, they explain, becomes a conclusive concept inference.

As on the first level, in light of the general provisions are private, individual facts and phenomena. After explaining the guide, returning to the starting point, concluded [28].

The effectiveness of the educational process as a tour depends on the level of activity of both parties - the guide and tourists. The creators of excursions for students in the 1920s set the task - to achieve maximum activity and initiative of tourists, encouraging them yourself "work" on the excursions. Of the guide as required to conduct screening facilities to supply tourists to the analysis of visual impressions gained from observation of objects.

An important part of the educational process, which takes place during the trip, the excursion is to comprehend the information. In the course of such thinking in the minds of tourists there are various mental operations - a comparison with the previously seen and heard, the comparison of the object to another, the allocation of primary and secondary, synthesis and conclusions.

Another object of the educational process as a tour - equip tourists with practical skills for self-monitoring facilities. Tour of its visibility, instructional techniques shown, forms the story helps to activate the tourists. To solve this problem, the guide aims to instill a certain group of "excursion literacy", especially the ability to see the object.

Important role in the process is the tour guide organizational work carried out over the entire route from the landing of a tour bus with the first steps in a walking tour. Organizing tourists, the guide performs the duties of a teacher.

Trips are an important part of the educational process is posleekskursionnaya work guide. Before the tour the task - to turn the end of the tour in the beginning of the independent members of its homework to consolidate and deepen the knowledge gained. Tourists get recommendations on how to continue the self, they are told to read the bibliography, a list of movies to see, the names of trips that you need to visit.

In teaching activities guide distinguish stages:

1) the preparation of the guide and the tour;

2) a very excursions;

3) posleekskursionnuyu work enshrining sightseeing stuff.

The guide provides two educational objectives: the didactic - weapons knowledge and educate tourists - the formation of attitudes, norms of behavior and speech etiquette.

For the guide, as well as for the teacher, characterized by four component activities: structural, organizational, communicative and cognitive.

Constructive component - the ability to select and correctly arrange sightseeing material restructure plan of the tour, the circuit using a methodological procedure, the contents of their information.

Organizational component - the ability to implement the management of the group, to organize the communication of information, to direct the attention of tourists to the necessary facilities, ensure the maintenance program.

Communicative component - the ability to establish a business relationship with the group, the bus driver, the museum, the Methodists bureau director methodological section and other guides.

Reaching audiences contribute to the quality of the guide such as friendliness, kindness, demeanor and ease in the relationship with the audience. For each guide is a natural emotion when meeting with the group. However, the guide does not have to be insecure, fuss, gesticulate too, quickly run your story.

Cognitive component - is the ability to: improve the content of excursions, methods and techniques to conduct and analyze features of a tour of the process, the results of its activities, and on this basis to develop pedagogical skills, differentiated approach to different groups of tourists. The main thing for the guide as a teacher - the ability to pass on their knowledge to tourists. Features of the educational process: a high degree of clarity, clear tematichnost material, advanced technique messages student knowledge.

The activity guide is different from other activities on the level of psychological stress. It is related to the activities of the teacher, writer, artist. The result of this activity is a specific "psychological product" - something to aspire to every teacher: the impact on the psyche of the other person in the right direction. This result is not unique. It depends on the knowledge and professional skills of the teacher. The resulting "product" can be positive, negative or neutral. You can judge it by knowledge, abilities and skills learned and trained educability, as well as their behavior. [29]

It is important to guide the basics mastered educational psychology, which is a part of psychology as a science. Educational psychology studies the psychological problems of education and training. Having learned the basic requirements of pedagogy, the guide is actively using the most effective forms of knowledge transfer the audience of the training and education.

It is important to guide a good command of pedagogical skill, which, as noted by Makarenko, "can be reduced to a great degree of perfection, almost to the point of technology". [30]

Part of the guide is speaking skill teaching techniques. Its constituent elements are:

1. Speaking skills (the ability to speak intelligently, of course, beautiful). Impressively intone his speech, to express certain thoughts in speech and feelings.

2. Mimic and pantomicheskaya expressiveness precise gestures, expressive eyes and a smile.

3. Ability to manage their emotional state, be gentle, friendly.

4. Ownership of directing and acting skills. All this allows the tour guide to actively verbal and non-verbal impact on the audience.

Educational technology - a set of knowledge, skills and competencies required for the teacher to effectively put into practice (orchestrate) elected its methods of pedagogical influence.

I have in mind as individuals (tourists) and collective (tour group).

Educational technology - is: the art of communicating with people, the ability to choose the right tone and style of communication with them, to control their attention, the ability to appear on their face to determine the state of mind of man, to set the pace in the teaching activities, the methods demonstrate possession of his feelings, his subjective attitude to the people - participants of the educational process, possession of speech, facial expression and gesture technology.

Conclusions.

Pedagogical principles of training and education are the foundation of excursions. Availability of key elements of pedagogy during the excursions can define it as a pedagogical process. Proficiency guide can be recognized as one of the types of teaching skills, and the guide is defined as a teacher, whose work puts its main task training and education of the people, the formation of the individual, his knowledge and belief. An important part of teaching skills guide is teaching technique.

Test questions:

1. Tour as a pedagogical process.

2. Components of pedagogical activity guide.

3. Features tours. The combination of training and education problems.

4. Educational technology, its main elements.

5. Using the methods of persuasion, taught, requirements, incentives.

6. Development of skills in tourists.


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