In practice it is used quite a few different methods of knowledge: inductive, deductive, analytical, synthetic, methods of abstraction, analogy, simulation, synthesis, experimentation, etc. All these methods are more or less used during the tours.
The term "method" has several meanings: 1) approach to reality, the phenomena of nature and society, and 2) a system of theoretical research methods, the practical realization of this goal, the purposeful implementation of certain work, and 3) a means of learning, a way to play in the thinking of the studied subject, build and study of knowledge, and 4) a method or way of action.
Method in logic is defined as a set of external, to the material and subjective rules and ways of research, the study of specific objects and ordering the resulting series of thoughts.
The concept of a "method" is broader than the concept of "process" and "method". In its simplest form, each meal is like a particle method.
In the process of teaching and cultural and educational activities of the method is the basis of new knowledge and the formation of moral qualities. Method for the operation can not be arbitrarily chosen. The main requirement for the method - it should achieve the objectives in the most effective and cost-effective resources.
In one of the tours of such resources include verbal material (story), demonstrated objects (display), vehicles, working time guide.
According to its meaning and scope of all methods used in human activities, can be divided into four categories:
A dialectical materialist method, which is the foundation of any learning process, regardless of the field, where the study. Dialectics is a method of explaining the nature of the processes taking place in the development of general relations of nature, moving from one field of study to another.
B. General, formal-logical methods that are the basis for many sciences, - analysis and synthesis, induction and deduction, generalization and abstraction, analogy, etc. A common method is formal logic - the method used to find the new results, the transition from the known the unknown. General methods, their elements are used during excursions.
On the action of analysis and synthesis methods built excursion analysis. No less active on a sightseeing method uses the analogy. Applying the analogy to the show and the story, the guide notes on the group similarities and differences between sites, the unity of action and different time places where objects are located.
The analogy is not limited to trips to the demonstrations externally similar objects. This can be objects, different in shape and structure, but similar to the functions they perform.
B. The concrete historical method - ascent from the abstract to the concrete. This method involves the movement of thought to a more complete, comprehensive and holistic reproduce the object in the mind. This method allows to form concepts that reflect individual aspects and properties.
G. Private methods that are used in one of the sciences or disciplines, as well as by using different forms of communication of knowledge. To this category of methods should be attributed excursion method . In a narrow sense excursion method is a set of techniques that are used on excursions. In a broad sense - is a complex method, it has several features: a choice in the observed objects the most important and significant, again linking the material under study with the earlier trippers experience and knowledge, etc.
For the tour of the method is characterized by the inclusion of such features tours, as an objective, the real evidence (visibility). Tour method is based on the primacy of (prevalence, priority value) display. Most excursions (except literature) put forward in the story guide position argued for by the visual evidence. Often, the story is just a commentary on the visual characteristics of excursion sites.
Excursion method is to study in the main theme. He admits that some aspects stand out and studied in more depth, the whole is broken up into separate parts, provided escort close connection between them. The reason for naming sightseeing complex method, is that it combines organic methods of teaching and methods of education.
It should be noted that scientists ekskursionisty seen the novelty and originality of the method is not a set of methods that make up a single integrated method, and quite different. One main feature of the method is considered as a motorized tour (ie the movement of tourists). Professor IM Gre-ve seen the essence of this method is the formula: «Traveling - Soul Tour." In the early 1920s, a major specialist tour business NA Geynike noted that among the Methodists do not have complete unity in the definition: what is a tour method .
Professor B. E. Raikov in the book "Methods and techniques of excursions" wrote: "Under the tour, we mean the study of objects in their natural location (local principle) and in connection with the movement of his place in the (motor principle). These two principles are closely related, and are the essence of the method of the tour. " He called excursion method a type of active-motor learning. The value of a tour of the method pointed out in several of his works.  It is more logical to take a different definition: a guided tour - a form of knowledge dissemination and education, based on the method of the tour. Many years of sightseeing experience suggests that the tour is a good method in contrast to the methods of verbal and practical. In describing this method as a comprehensive method of learning about the human reality, it is necessary to see the connection the term "specific" to the principle of clarity. Tourist sights in most cases, it should be understood as a complex multi-stakeholder process of the principle of clarity. The comprehensive nature tour of the method is reflected also in the fact that knowledge of objects and phenomena of the world held with the participation of all the human senses.
Scientist ekskursoved VI Ado noted the following advantages tour methods: Research element of the work of pupils for the raw, concrete and vital study of the past, a comprehensive perception of the object, the increased interest and on the basis of a deeper and lasting learning.
Most of the work on the case especially excursion tour of the method are considered in relation to educational work with students. In fact, this method is the basis of the whole excursion work no matter what the number of participants covered by it - children or adults.
Thus, the method is the basis sightseeing tour of the process and a set of methods and techniques of communication of knowledge. Together form the basis of: transparency; compulsory combination of two elements - the show and the story, the optimal interaction of three components - a guide, tour facilities and sightseers, tourists movement (motor) on a certain route to explore objects by their natural position. The comprehensive nature tour of the method is reflected in the action mechanisms of communication and knowledge guide learning of the knowledge of tourists.
Virtually the entire excursion theory is just a tour of the analysis method. The purpose of the tour of the method - training (transfer of certain system of knowledge) and education (the formation of a fully developed personality).
Unlike school education for tours taking place in the course of training, in conversation with the tour facilities during the tour guide and the story of his actions when displaying objects. The content of the reported guide trainees' knowledge produces a certain approach to the explanation of natural phenomena, understanding the logic of the development and progress of society, leads to the evaluation of historical events.
Currently excursion agencies in their activities are guided by the following main provisions:
a) the basis of any sightseeing tour is one method of communication of knowledge;
b) display and a story - parts tours and basic elements;
c) moving (motorized) - one of the signs of excursions;
d) guided technique is a private method, and consists of two parts - the methods of preparation and methods of conducting tours;
e) the method of guided tours is a collection of techniques show tour facilities and talking about them and the events associated with them.
All tours are based on the use of special complex method, which is based on a combination of traditional teaching methods of teaching and learning. The difference is that they are used with greater clarity. The decisive factor is not only the logical unity of the methods of training and education, but also the effect of the laws, which are their driving force.
Excursion method is an active way for action guide and tourists, creates conditions for their communication with the objects and for the organized and efficient operation of tourists. Experience excursion work strongly suggests that only those trips achieve their goals, which are tailored to the features and requirements of the tour of the method.
1. The concept of "method." Kinds of methods.
2. Guided method, its meaning, purpose and objectives.