Function (as a concept), translated from Latin means execution, execution, execution, sphere of activity, purpose, responsibility, role. Function - is the outward manifestation of an object, the form of institutions and enterprises. Function - that is to act, to work. Functions excursions considered its main properties. Function of the scientific propaganda. Tour promotes political, philosophical, scientific, artistic and other views, ideas and theories. Performing the function of propaganda, each tour should have a clear focus. The basis of the principles of propaganda tours, science, ideology, communication and life, clarity and persuasiveness. These principles express the essence of propaganda, it can distinguish the main thing. They should be considered together, ie in mutual contact with each other.
The principle of science. An important quality of tours as a form of education and training is its scientific character. Task excursions - to promote the dissemination of scientific knowledge. The content of excursions should be provided in accordance with the data of a particular section of modern science, to facilitate the formation of ideology. Facts, events, theoretical positions are given in the scientific interpretation, get coverage with the achievements of modern science, the sectors to which they relate. Facts and events to get an objective scientific assessment.
The principle of ideology. The idea - it's a clear plan of action to achieve the goal. Dal considered the idea of ??"the concept of a thing umoponyatie, idea, imagination, object, intellectual imagination" .
Ideological be seen as a conscious commitment to a particular system of ideas. Principles of ideology means an objective approach to the content of the actual material in the preparation of tours and conviction guide setting out the material to tourists. It is important that each tour has been prepared in response to this requirement, in accordance with it were made up of documents for trips - texts and methodologies.
It is equally important to guide building his story on a scientific theory, consistently demonstrating their personal ideological conviction. In the story of the guide, in the analysis of objects is reflected not only the learning guide, and bias as an objective manifestation of his active life position. Conceptual guide - an expert who in their work and in all their actions guided by clear principles.
Linking theory to life. Material excursions should be linked with life, the reality, the practice of economic and cultural development, with the changes that are taking place in Russia. Presentation of factual material must be accompanied by generalizations and conclusions based laws that are the basis of historical and other processes.
Certain difficulties arise when trying to link the material presented to the present. We must bear in mind that the past and present in the tour, regardless of the topic, somehow tied together.
The material is characterized by modern field trips, is reflected in three aspects: the first aspect - the whole issue is entirely devoted to tour events of today ("Kaluga built", "Master Plan for the reconstruction of the city in Action"), the second aspect - the dedicated part of our tour, one or more subtopics. This form is typical for a tour of the city, neighborhood ("Murmansk - the capital of the Arctic"), ("Land of our Ramensky"). In the tour shows the past (history), the present (the present) and the future of the city area (perspective). Show today assigned part of the tour. Finally, the third aspect - a tour devoted entirely to showing historical events, historical monuments. Connection with the present day is reflected in the fact that the events of the past (sometimes centuries ago) are estimated from the position of the present, on the basis of science. Comments and conclusions take into account the dominant view today. For example, the tour "The Decembrists in Irkutsk" gives the following assessment: "Russian aristocratic revolutionaries raised in December 1825 uprising against the autocracy and serfdom ... Decembrist movement was the first armed action of the revolutionaries in Russia ...".
Efficiency excursion depends on how clear the material presented, as far as he in their content accessible to the audience. The material shall set out with the preparedness of the audience, her educational level, experience.
The credibility of the material provided by the tour also: selection of the most important facts and details, using convincing comparisons; skillful selection of evidence, references to authoritative sources, the memories of the participants and witnesses; demonstration photos, copies of original documents, maps, charts.
For each excursion characterized confidential tone posts knowledge. Assumptions, version, options should not supplant the chief - of the topic on the basis of scientific evidence. Polemical tendencies detrimental perception tour material. Art historian AV Bakushinskii, developing methods of museum tours, opposes making excursions in critical and polemical tendencies. This technique is rarely succeeds, pulverizing energy and attention of tourists. The main requirement of the tour - the validity, reliability of the facts reported by the tourists. That is what attracts attention to the subject, is the basis for its perception. 
Information function. Excursion in accordance with its own theme contains information on a particular section of knowledge: the achievements of history, medicine, biology, the discoveries of archaeologists, inventions, developments in the economic and cultural development. From important media such as newspapers, radio, television, lectures, excursions, have a higher visibility. Much of the information on trips supported display objects. The availability of information on tours does not mean that the guide should, retreating from the topic, make the reports on the latest developments in international life. The basis for the trip is approved text. You should not supplement the content of thematic tours of the morning broadcast materials or recent issues of newspapers, if this is not a message of extreme importance.
Function of the organization of cultural activities. Under leisure means that part out of hours, which remains at the disposal of the person after the working day. This free time during the day, the week, the person spends on your own on the active creative or social activities, learning on the job, amateur classes, chatting with friends.
Include a tour to the group sessions, which is defined by the term "learning and self." As a form of cultural and leisure activities, a tour provides satisfaction and the formation of the spiritual needs of man. Already in the 1920s, scientists ekskursionisty come to believe that the trip was not a vacation, but the mental work that requires tourists more stress than usual walk around the city.
Systematic knowledge, reported in the tour, its appeal due to the presence of the element «Traveling", so choose according to their interests - all this makes the trip a popular pastime for people.
Excursion is important in a number of forms of learning on the job. Markedly increased role in the organization of tours of cultural activities, where excursion institutions and museums have moved from episodic events in efforts to cycles. Guided cycle attempt to provide a system of knowledge to tourists (eg, history of his native city, the monuments of culture and history, situated on its territory). In the major cultural centers of this problem can be narrowed. Here the cycle of 5-6 excursions dedicated show, for example, historical monuments.
Excursion to the extension function of cultural and technical outlook. Each excursion enhances human outlook. Participants with the knowledge of history, in the arts, architecture, literature, and economics. Often tourists tour elaborates knowledge, and helps them to see what they knew from written sources of the school curriculum, of the lectures.
Tour - a synthesis of several forms of cultural and educational work. It as thematically integrated and methodologically justifiable parts can be included:
a) excerpts from feature films, popular science, or news-documentary film entirely, and b) by the participants or eyewitnesses, veterans of war (1941-1945). tours in the military-patriotic themes;
c) meeting with the leaders of industrial and agricultural enterprises, engineering and technical personnel, advanced workers in excursions to production issues;
d) Listening to music on the life and work of composers, artists, and musicians;
d) Listening to speeches of state and public figures in the recording field trips to historical and historical-revolutionary themes.
Shaping human interests. Task tour - tell the audience knowledge and interest among the people in a particular field of knowledge. Having been on the literary tours, participants are showing further interest to a particular writer. Participants in these tours in the future read the literature on the fine arts, creative writing, visiting museums and other excursions. Tour for many is the beginning of self-education.
Each particular excursion can perform multiple functions. It depends on which group of tourists being addressed. For children and young people tour - a feature expansion of cultural and technical horizons, for teens who choose a profession - the function of forming interests, for foreign tourists - a function of information, etc.
SIGNS OF TRAVEL
Call sign is what makes by a similar or different from other objects and phenomena. This refers to the essential characteristics, ie those without which an object, phenomenon, a form of cultural and educational work can not exist. "The essential features of the subject - the subject is a group of signs, each of which, taken separately, is necessary, and all together enough to use them to be able to distinguish the subject from all the other" .
Tour, like other forms of cultural and educational work (lecture, themed evening, oral magazine readers' conference), has its own characteristics in the organization and how to conduct. Its indications are the similarities with other forms or to emphasize its radical difference from them.
Common features for all excursions are:
1. The length of time from one academic hour (45 minutes) to one day.
2. The presence of tourists (groups or individuals).
3. The presence of the guide, conducting a tour.
4. Visibility, visual perception, showing tour facilities at their location.
5. Moving the excursion participants on a predetermined route.
6. Focus display objects, the presence of a particular topic.
7. The activity of the participants (observation, study, research facilities).
The absence of even one of the above seven signs preclude a call event conducted tour.
In addition to these common traits in each tour has its specific features:
- The bus - a mandatory exit the bus for inspection sites;
- The museum - familiarity with the material placed on the stand;
- The production - a demonstration of existing facilities (machines, equipment, tools).
Value features tours is that they do not allow a proper understanding of the nature excursions misinterpreted.
Deprived of necessary features are the measures which may be designated a generic term - "gidizm" - haphazard sightseeing places, monuments of history and culture. Gidizm should be seen as a negative phenomenon, the result of soft-touch approach to the preparation and conduct tours. Tour and a cursory examination of objects with a guide - it's a different concept. Gidizm ekskursionistov troubled scientists since the dawn of the tour business.
The image guide is reflected in literature, letters and memoirs of travelers. On one of these descriptions, he says ekskursionist MP Antsiferov: "Portrait of a guide portrayed random strokes, but the image turned out quite finished. Here and complacency learning, and links to, and profound sighs, and skakanie from one subject to another without any connection. So it was in the old days, and will remain so now, where there is no properly organized excursions. " The scientist concluded that gidizm - the worst enemy tour business. This question troubled tour and scientists, not only in the 20s. Its importance lot said and written in our time. We present one piece of evidence: "Only opening theme for the visual objects can be considered as a guided tour, in contrast to the display of objects in the order of their appearance before the eyes of tourists, the so-called" gidizma. " Guide only "comments" objects excursions ". 
A wide range of objects of the show, multifaceted topic, elaboration of methods of excursions, professional skill guides allow excursions to perform certain functions, each of which plays an important role in the upbringing and education of the person.
Any form of cultural and educational work has its own distinctive features. The main feature of trips - a high degree of clarity. And other important characteristics. They are different for different trips (bus and foot, production and museum). It should, however, bear in mind that the above features are required for each tour.
1. The notion of "function". Function trips.
2. Principle in scientific excursions.
3. Connection with the present. Aspects of the show today.
4. The combination of two or more functions in the excursion.