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Table of contents


Kinds of tourism

Excursion (author BV Emelyanov)

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
introduction

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
1. Fundamentals Excursion

 1.1. Excursion as science
 1.2. Essence tour
 1.3. The functions and features of the tour
 1.4. Method of learning tour
 1.5. Tour as a pedagogical process
 1.6. Elements of psychology tours
 1.7. The logic in excursions
 1.8. Classification Tour
 1.9. The topics and content excursions
 1.10. Show tours
 1.11. The story in the tour
 1.12. The combination of the show and the story in the tour
2. guided technique

3. Professional skills guide

Tunisia (author Danielle shetar Friedrich chum)

In the Sikhote-Alin (author VK Arseniev)

Michail bulgakov. the heart of a dog

Mikhail bulgakov. the master and margarita

Charlotte bronte. jane eyre

F. scott fitzgerald / the great gatsby

Jerome klapka jerome / three men in a boat


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     1. Fundamentals Excursion
          1.2. Essence tour

Essence tour

The word "tour" is derived from the Latin "excursion". In Russian, the word penetrated the XIX century. and originally meant "running out, a military incursion" and then - "sally, ride." Later, there was a modification of the word-type names in "s" (Tour + s) [7].

The concept of "nature" is a collection of parties and relationships, which are inherent properties taken and examined in their natural interdependence. Entity - is the internal content of the subject, which is expressed in the unity of all the different and contradictory forms of its existence. [8]

In considering the concept of "nature tours" to keep in mind the process of conditioning of the objective requirements of the tour. Each tour is a special process of activities, the essence of which is caused by specific laws (tematichnost, commitment, clarity, emotion, activity, etc.). First of regularity excursions mentioned in a scientific conference in 1978

The main tour management of the Central Council for Tourism and Excursions Council of Trade Unions and the Central Research Laboratory for Tourism and Excursions (TSNILTE) [9].

During the tour guide of the process helps to tourists to see objects on which the disclosed subject (the first task), to hear about these objects, the necessary information (the second problem), to sense the greatness of the feat, the value of a historical event (the third task), learn practical life skills of observation and analysis tour facilities (fourth task). The decision of the latter problem is a great place to see the formation of skills.

The ability to see how the aesthetic perception is reduced to the ability to perceive the architectural masses, colors, lines of any kind, mass groupings, colors, lines, and their complexes in perspective, light, air, angle of view.

The ability to see a historical perception is as follows: First, we must be able to find a tour a typical features and characteristics of the historical and cultural character, and secondly, we must be able to determine the layering at the tour site, made time, and its evolution, and thirdly , you should be able to find the historical facts of the monumental and museum and historical monuments - a task that always requires more knowledge and skills.

Material excursions, professional skill guide in his account allow sightseers to analyze, to make the necessary conclusions. These skills during the show and talking to tourists instills guide. At the same time as the active assistant guide tours are the authors. Talked about this famous theorist, critic and teacher AV Bakushinskii: "Tutorials material due to, all of the tasks and plan trips, should be directed to the awakening of self-perception and evaluation". [10]

One of the tasks of excursions - to develop in tourists to the theme tours, activities of historical figures, facts, on the whole excursion to the material and give it your rating.

An opinion - it means an idea of ??someone, something, to determine the value, nature, the role of someone or something, to acknowledge someone's dignity, positive qualities.

Rating excursions - it tripper conclusions to which it leads a tour guide.

The ratio of the tour must be understood as a certain look tripper on the historical period, the subject of tour, the perception of any action, understanding the particular situation in which there was a writer, sculptor (artist), making his work.

In this process, an important role is played material tours, feeding his guide, the "angle of view" to the event and an evaluation of its guide, the guide and the belief in the right. The main thing in this process - a problem of understanding. Most tourists perceive view the guide, which is the basis for understanding the material and production with the subject of the show and the story.

Excursion - methodically thought out presentation of cultural heritage sites and monuments of history and culture, which is based on the analysis are before the eyes of tourists facilities and skillful account of the events associated with them. However, only the essence of the concept for this "tour" to reduce it would be wrong. We consider several formulations of the term "tour", which were published in various publications over the past 70 years. The first of them is: "Tour - there is a walk, has set out to study a particular topic in a particular material available contemplation" (MP Antsiferov, 1923).

Describing the place of excursion activity in extracurricular work with children ekskursionist L. Barkhash believed that the tour - is a descriptive method of obtaining certain knowledge, education through visits to a prepared topic specific objects (museum, factory, farm, etc.) with a special head (guide). [11]

We also present one of the most recent publication of definitions: "Tour - a special form of academic and extracurricular activities, which is a joint activity of the teacher-guide and led them to school-trippers in the study of the phenomena actually observed in vivo (factory, farm, monuments historical and cultural memorials, nature, etc.) or in a specific storage of collections (museum exhibition) "[12]. These are the views of scientists ekskursionistov.

Consider the interpretation of the term "tour" given in various dictionaries and encyclopedias. The earliest (1882) interpretation of this term gives Dal 'Excursion - sinking, walk out to find something, to gather herbs, etc. "[13]. In the Small Soviet Encyclopedia (1931, v. 10, p. 195) term disclosed as follows: "Tour - a collective visit to a locality, industries, farms, museums, etc., mainly from the scientific or educational purposes."

Detailed explanation of the term "tour" gives the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1933, v. 63, p. 316): "a form of mass culture and education, propaganda and educational work, which aims to increase knowledge of the younger generation ...".

In the Dictionary of Russian (under the direction of Ushakov, 1940), the word "tour" is explained as "collective ride or walk with a scientific-educational or entertainment purpose."

In the Small Soviet Encyclopedia (1960, v. 10, p. 770) states that "the tour - group trip or a trip to the places of interest from the scientific, educational, or cultural and educational purpose."

In the Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1978, v. 29, p. 63) gives the following definition: "Tour - sightseeing anything objects (cultural monuments, museums, businesses, terrain, etc.), the form and method of acquisition knowledge. Normally held collectively under the expert guidance of tour. " Other interpretations of later times not original and adds nothing to the characteristics previously made.

In the above definitions tours can detect some differences. They are not random and do not warrant the conclusion that there is opposing points of view on the tour. Each formulation is related to the functioning of trips in a given period of time. Hence - the differences in wording between the goals, objectives and forms of excursions specific to a particular time. Over the years, there is a complication of tasks. Before the tour put other goals change the shape of their conduct. In this vividly manifested itself especially excursions, it is different from other forms of cultural and educational work. And at the same time we can not ignore attempts by individual scientists to limit excursion narrower scope.

In some dictionaries, such as the Quick Teacher Dictionary (1989, p. 300-310) and a guide, a visit is seen as a form of visual learning, teaching and education. It emphasizes the value of only one of the parties, namely, that the excursions transfer learning in environment monitoring objects (objects) in the environment or on display in the museum.

Some ekskursionisty, considering the nature excursions, treat her concepts such as composition, story and plot.

Composition - the construction, connection, production of individual parts into a whole. This term refers to the concepts of "structure" and "structure."

The plot - an event or multiple events associated with each other.

The plot - a chain of events, which tells the story work. In the presentation of the plot distinguish composition plot, the development of the action, climax, denouement.

Climax - the point, the moment of greatest tension in the development of the fable.

Tour, being the product of the specific authors, constructed with reference to the requirements to the literary work and has its own story, which is subject to all the sightseeing stuff. City tour of its objectives and the form of more complex than information or waypoint guided conversation instructor gone camping. Thematic tour over the city survey, is more complex in structure, content and methodology of.

Development path excursion goes through a change in its nature. Originally excursion was a walk, pursuing practical problems, such as finding herbs. Next to her stood scientific problems, such as the identification of exhibits for the museum. The search for new forms of self-guided tours have confronted comprehensive goal. Desire to improve the educational work, to make it more efficient made a trip to one of the types of cultural and educational work. [14]

Now tour as something complete, integrated, which has its own specific features and characteristics peculiar individual methods. Much of it was enriched in content, modes and methods of presenting material and is described as an integral part of the ideological and educational and cultural work. [15]

So the tour is a tangible process of man's knowledge of the world, built on a pre-selected objects in the natural environment or located on the premises of enterprises, laboratories, research institutes, etc.

Display objects are under the direction of a qualified person - a guide. The process of perception of objects trippers subordinated to the task disclosure of certain topics. The guide sends the audience a vision of the object, evaluation of the memorial site, the understanding of historical events related to the object. He was not indifferent to what visitor sees, as he will understand and accept what they saw and heard. He brings his explanations of tourists to the necessary conclusions and estimates, and thereby achieve the desired performance measures.

In brief nature excursions can be defined as: a guided tour - the amount of knowledge in the specific form of the reported group of people, and a certain system actions on their gear.

AS TOUR ACTIVITY

Activity is a human activity which is aimed at achieving this goal. Tour - the amount of interrelated and interdependent actions. These actions are diverse: the movement of the route, the movement of objects relative to (they walk), observation sites included in the route notes. Tips guide tourists make action meaningful, purposeful.

Actions during tours are divided into two parts: the activities and guide the activities of tourists.

The activities of the guide consists of a series of actions, the most important of them - the preparation and conduct tours. Tour - a specific type of activity specialist guide. You can not recognize the correct statement of some trainers that tour, being the work of the guide, is rest for tourists. Practically involved in the tour process - work hard, so hard for both parties - the guide and tourists.

The activity of tourists is reflected in the active forms, as observation, study, research facilities.

TOUR AS A FORM OF COMMUNICATION

The dictionary of the Russian language the term "communication" is seen as "the mutual relations, business friendly relationship." More commonly "communication" is defined in dictionaries as the philosophical one of the necessary conditions for the formation and development of the subjects (individuals), at which the exchange of information, skills and abilities. [16]

In practice, people have been two kinds of communication - direct and indirect. Forms of direct communication - talk, lecture, lesson at school, debate, discussion, meeting, tour, etc. In the course of this communication formed a community of feelings, attitudes, opinions, views, understanding is achieved, there is assimilation of information, strengthen relationships.

Indirect communication occurs during the reading of newspapers, magazines, books, listening to the radio, watching movies, etc. In the process of this kind of communication is no feedback, which in direct communication manifests itself in response to the subject of the information.

Tour as a form of direct communication involves the relationship and interaction between actors (the guide and tourists) on the basis of their joint activities. As a specific form of communication, a tour enables millions of people to get a significant amount of information, shaping the way mental activity. Communicating with other participants in the event, sightseer with imitation and borrowing, empathy and identification absorb human emotions, feelings, and behaviors. In the process of communication to achieve the required organization and unity of action of individuals in the group, is their emotional understanding, forming a community of feelings, moods, thoughts, and opinions.

Communication between people on an excursion should be attributed to the spiritual and informational type of communication, the combination of two forms of relationships between subjects and objects, as well as personal and group relations. [17]

Basic knowledge of psychology and pedagogy tour guide helps to organize the excursion. Practical communication is the communicative phase in the activity guide.

Properly organized communication guide and tourists is the basis of the educational process as a tour. Communicative component - an important part of professional skill guide. Efficiency excursions determined not only extensive knowledge on the topic guide, the ability to use a method of presenting this knowledge the audience, but also ability to communicate with tourists, Methodists, and other workers at the tour agencies, museums, a bus driver. An important role in communicating with the audience playing qualities like attentiveness, ability to lead a normal conversation.

Methodist excursion institutions attach great importance to the role of tour guide during the tour.

In this case, you can see the achievements and failures. In an effort to increase the activity of tourists, the guide uses a variety of options. Doing a lengthy story, he unwittingly becomes a lecturer, reduce the role of tour guide to passively accepting what he saw and heard. More effective option when the tour guide, making specific explanations, directs the group's attention to raise issues at the tourists, forcing them to think, compare, leads to estimates and conclusions. And the third option - this is when the guide is like the conductor of the group. He organizes a demonstration facilities, provides a clear procedure for their observations. This happens because the tourists are engaged in active perception of what they see. Questions they come after will reflect upon experience. A similar version of the tour is possible in highly skilled and cohesive group.

In practice excursion seen in several aspects:

a) as an independent form of education and training, as part of other forms of education and training;

b) as a form of work to a mass audience and a form of learning;

c) as a form of cultural entertainment and educational work;

d) as episodic (single) event, part of a thematic series, and also as one of the stages of learning;

g) as a form of dissemination of scientific knowledge, ideological education;

e) In the event of one of the areas of education - patriotic, labor, aesthetic, as well as part of the formation of a fully developed personality;

h) as an autonomous form of cultural and educational work, and as an integral part of the tourism industry;


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