In the history of the tour business in the country focused on the method of preparation and technique of their tours of, organizing sightseeing tour business and content services. At the same time, little attention was paid to the excursion theory. This fact caused alarm among scientists ekskursionistov.
In "Tours of historic and cultural monuments," FL Kurlat and J. E. Sokolowski noted: "The theory of the case at the tour is in the making ... There is much work in the area of ??solutions excursion problems." . Among the urgent problems of the development of these authors call excursion propaganda, psychological foundations, terminology, tour business, methods and techniques of training and guided tours, quality criteria excursions.
In the literal translation of the Greek word "theory" means the observation, examination, investigation. This term is considered in several senses: 1) the theory - a generalization of the experience of social work experience, which reflects the objective laws of nature and society, and 2) the theory - a set of generalized positions, forming a science or one of its sections, and 3) the theory - a system of ideas in one of the branches of knowledge, and 4) the theory - the highest, the most advanced form of organization of scientific knowledge, which gives a holistic view of the laws of the existing links certain area. 
When we look at the excursion theory, then: a) modeling, which should ideally be a tour, and b) we mean the mechanism of action excursion on human consciousness, c) assume comprehension and use of the basic regularities and features guided tours, and d) to define quality criteria excursions , the means to improve their effectiveness, and e) formulate theoretical foundations tour business.
For employees of tourist and sightseeing excursion industry theory - is the total theoretical principles that are the basis tour business, determine the main directions of its development and improvement.
Excursion theory - a set of concepts: functions excursions, its main features and aspects, especially the show and story; excursion method, classification excursions; differentiated approach to excursion service, methodology and technique, elements of the excursion of pedagogy and logic foundation of excellence guide.
In theory excursion important place issues with tour techniques, methodologies and tour business methods. The concepts of "method", "methodology" and "method" are interconnected and conditioned.
Development of excursion theory, initiated in 1920, continues today. In the first period is the development based on the principles of the school of pedagogy. Classification excursions, their features and functions, the very process of sightseeing determined based on trips for school children. In this case, scientists and methodologists ekskursionisty based on the objectives and requirements of the secondary school. The exception was a part of the museum tour, where attempts were made to understand the excursion theory as applied to the whole of excursionists (adults and children). Science museum staff and researchers at the Moscow Research Institute of Culture in its publications Some questions excursion theory, but until the mid-1970s a major development of the theory of the excursion was not.
Famous scientists ekskursionisty FL Kurlat and YE Solovsky in the aforementioned article called names of scientists who own all thanks to the setting up and development of the key problems of the theory of a tour of the case, as the definition of excursions, educational and psychological foundations of excursions, general and private school methods and massive tours, classification excursions.
Have to agree with them that the theory of the tour is the case in the 1930s, developed in creative research and debate, and that the whole theory of the tour business is in its infancy.
More intensive development of the excursion theory began in the 1970s. This is explained by the transfer of the tour business unions that have created a specialized unit - the main tour management, the central research laboratory for tourism and excursions and courses on central tourist and excursion workers.
The development of the theory of the excursion is also associated with the expansion of the services, the changing role of trips, ie its transformation from recreation and entertainment in an integral part of the ideological and educational and cultural work with the population. We offer new excursions, clarify symptoms improved scientific level of excursion activities, the psychological and pedagogical foundations excursion propaganda, began to be used more purposefully principle of clarity appeared normative methodology, increased staff organizers, trainers and guides.
Development contributed to the development of the theory of excursions and a lecture course "Theory and Practice of the tour business" on the central tourism courses at the Institute for Advanced Training of tourist and excursion organizations. In parallel, teachers PKI for five years were named course for day and evening of the Faculty training of tourist and excursion organizations Graduate School unionism them. NM Shvernik. The content of the course was presented in textbooks written by BV Emelyanov and published by the Central Bureau of advertisement information "Tourist": "Fundamentals Excursion" (1981, 1985), "Methods of preparing and conducting tours" (1980 g), "Organization of the tour agencies" (1979, 1987), "Excursions of the population" (1983), "tour - an integral part of the ideological education" (1984), "The professional skill guide "(1986).
The whole system of how to prepare and conduct tours, and some issues of the excursion theory expounding in teaching aids, prepared and published by the IEC workers tourist-excursion main organizations and tour management of the Central Council for Tourism and Excursions in the period from 1971 to 1988
Sustained attention to the excursion theory paid excursion Department of the Russian International Academy of Tourism (formerly IEC employees of tourist and excursion companies). The result of this work was the publication in 1992, the manual in three parts of the "Excursion" . The first part of the manual "Fundamentals excursion theory" more fully than in previous editions, highlights aspects of the theory.
However, at present excursion theory does not stand still. Important events in the life of tourist and excursion organizations, travel and tours, public and departmental museums - a new form of customer service experience enthusiasts, who becomes the property tour agencies, thousands of Methodists, guides, teachers of educational institutions, leads to the fact that individual position excursion theory developed, replaced by new, more perfect. The emergence and development of the theory is the result of generalization of cognitive activity, daily work of thousands of guides. "The theory arises from practice, but it is not just a generalization of practical experience, but goes much further opens up new communication by the subject". 
Excursion theory is a set of views, ideas, positions, which are the basis of the tour business in the country. Most fully and definitely excursion theory reflected in such subject matter as Excursion. The very same Excursion is a complex discipline, exposing the theory, methodology and technique excursion activities, the history of the tour business and generalize the practice of tourist and excursion agencies, functions performed hike.
At present, work on further development of the main provisions of the excursion theory has moved into the walls of the Russian International Academy of Tourism.
1. The concept of the theory.
2. Excursion as science.
3. The role of practice in the development of the excursion Excursion.
4. Edition, reflecting issues excursion theory.
5. The importance of theory in the development of tour business.